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J. S. Kimball, K. C. McDonald, and M. Zhao

× 25 km resolution and a total representative area of approximately 2.2 million km 2 . We used a NOAA AVHRR–based global land cover classification to define major biomes for PEM calculations within the study region ( Myneni et al. 1997b ; DeFries et al. 1998 ). Boreal forests and tundra are the major biomes within the region and represent approximately 52% and 30% of the region, respectively. The rest of the domain is composed of permanent ice and snow, barren land, and inland water bodies. These

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J. S. Kimball, M. Zhao, A. D. McGuire, F. A. Heinsch, J. Clein, M. Calef, W. M. Jolly, S. Kang, S. E. Euskirchen, K. C. McDonald, and S. W. Running

) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based global land cover classification to define major biomes for PEM calculations within the study region ( Myneni et al. 1997b ; DeFries et al. 1998 ). Boreal forests and tundra are the major biomes within the region and represent approximately 52% and 30% of the region, respectively. The rest of the domain is composed of permanent ice and snow, barren land, and inland water bodies. These nonvegetated areas were masked from further analysis to isolate

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Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, Ute Christina Herzfeld, Charles Fowler, and Wanli Wu

, with the APP data being significantly colder than the other datasets. The main reason for this is likely related to cloud masking and surface inversions. In winter, the snow-covered surface can appear similar to clouds (especially in the visible wavelengths), and cases where cloudy scenes are mistakenly classified as snow-covered ground often lead to cooler temperatures. Additionally, the APP data are based on skin temperatures, rather than 2-m air temperatures, and they may be slightly colder due

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A. D. McGuire, J. E. Walsh, J. S. Kimball, J. S. Clein, S. E. Euskirchen, S. Drobot, U. C. Herzfeld, J. Maslanik, R. B. Lammers, M. A. Rawlins, C. J. Vorosmarty, T. S. Rupp, W. Wu, and M. Calef

. Euskirchen , S. E. , A. D. McGuire , and F. S. Chapin III . 2007 . Energy feedbacks to the climate system due to reduced high latitude snow cover during 20th Century warming. Global Change Biol. 13 : 2425 – 2438 . Hamon , W. R. 1963 . Computation of direct runoff amounts from storm rainfall. Int. Assoc. Sci. Hydrol. Publ. 63 : 52 – 62 . Herzfeld , U. C. , S. Drobot , W. Wu , C. Fowler , and J. Maslanik . 2007 . Spatio-temporal climate model validation: Case studies

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M. A. Rawlins, S. Frolking, R. B. Lammers, and C. J. Vörösmarty

. 63 : 52 – 62 . Karl , T. R. , P. Y. Groisman , R. W. Knight , and R. R. Heim , 1993 . Recent variations of snow cover and snowfall in North America and their relation to precipitation and temperature variations. J. Climate 6 : 1327 – 1344 . Kistler , R. , and Coauthors , 2001 . The NCEP–NCAR 50-year reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 82 : 247 – 267 . Kite , G. W. , and U. Haberlandt , 1999 . Atmospheric model data for

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Wanli Wu, Amanda H. Lynch, Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, A. David McGuire, and Ute Herzfeld

Grell deep convective parameterization ( Grell et al. 1994 ), the Medium-Range Forecasting (MRF) planetary boundary layer scheme ( Hong and Pan 1996 ), and the Reisner explicit cloud microphysics parameterization ( Reisner et al. 1998 ). This latter parameterization predicts the mixing ratio of cloud water and ice crystals as well as the rain and snow water mixing ratios. The Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM; Mlawer et al. 1997 ) is chosen for longwave radiation, and the delta

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Ute C. Herzfeld, Sheldon Drobot, Wanli Wu, Charles Fowler, and James Maslanik

-Analysis (ERA-15) reanalysis data. Several aspects of the ERA-40 project are covered in Simmons and Gibson ( Simmons and Gibson 2000 ) and Simmons ( Simmons 2001 ). UDEL ( MW ): UDEL climate data (see http://climate.geog.udel.edu/climate and http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/cdc/data.Udel-airT-precip.html ) are derived from field observations, following interpolation methods described in Willmott and Robeson ( Willmott and Robeson 1995 ) and Willmott et al. ( Willmott et al. 1996 ). In this work, we utilize UDEL

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