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I. Gultepe, A. J. Heymsfield, P. R. Field, and D. Axisa

. 6-4c ), covers the hydrometeor radius range from 7.5 μ m up to centimeter size ranges, including LSN particles (e.g., less than 500 μ m). In addition to GCIP, the fog-measuring device (FMD; also called FM100; Fig. 6-4d ) has been used during the FRAM and SAAWSO projects to study ice and freezing fog conditions ( Gultepe et al. 2014b , 2015 ). A two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) has also been used for snow spectral measurements at 0.2-mm resolution ( Löhnert et al. 2011 ; Brandes et

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

, disdrometer, and weighing gauge data ( Brandes et al. 2007 ; Huang et al. 2010 ), but doing so is tedious and case specific ( Tapiador et al. 2012 ). The advent of the GPM Core Observatory , with its enhanced capabilities over TRMM and the ability to measure the solid phase over the whole planet, has opened a new phase for hydrology. c. Snowpack Observations of snowpack properties, such as snow-covered area (SCA)/snow cover extent (SCE), snow depth, and SWE, prove challenging due to the considerable

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J. Bühl, S. Alexander, S. Crewell, A. Heymsfield, H. Kalesse, A. Khain, M. Maahn, K. Van Tricht, and M. Wendisch

. Muñoz-Alpizar , 2009 : Study of polar thin ice clouds and aerosols seen by CloudSat and CALIPSO during midwinter 2007 . J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , D09201, doi: 10.1029/2008JD010927 . Grody , N. C. , 1991 : Classification of snow cover and precipitation using the special sensor microwave imager . J. Geophys. Res. , 96 , 7423 – 7435 , doi: 10.1029/91JD00045 . 10.1029/91JD00045 Heintzenberg , J. , 2009 : The SAMUM-1 experiment over Southern Morocco: Overview and introduction . Tellus , 61B

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Robert G. Ellingson, Robert D. Cess, and Gerald L. Potter

+2-K SST perturbation simulations that was close to 4 K, and different model sensitivities in turn resulted in different values for G . The perpetual July simulation eliminated another problem. This study focused solely on atmospheric feedback mechanisms, and inspection of output from all the models showed that climate feedback caused by changes in snow and ice coverage was suppressed through use of a fixed sea ice constraint and because the perpetual July simulations produced little snow cover

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

). Retrieval of Antarctic sea ice thickness from satellite altimetry remains a challenge ( Kwok and Maksym 2014 ) largely because of uncertainties in snow depth and potential penetration issues at radar wavelengths ( Giles et al. 2008 ). Discrepancies between ice thickness estimates stem from different approaches used to determine snow depth ( Zwally et al. 2008 ; Kurtz and Markus 2012 ; Xie et al. 2013 ). These results point to the need for better sampling of the Antarctic sea ice cover, so as to

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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

Heritage Center for many years. d. Science objectives The growing understanding that the Arctic region was particularly vulnerable to a changing climate dictated the science objectives for the North Slope site. There was a realization that Arctic system physical processes, in many ways unique compared to other regions around the globe, were not represented well in models used to study climate ( Tao et al. 1996 ). The presence of the ice-covered ocean through most of the year greatly impacts air

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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

conducive for lake-effect snows changed over time (e.g., Suriano and Leathers 2017 ; Baijnath-Rodino et al. 2018 ). Climate simulations for latter parts of the twenty-first century generally predict decreases in lake-effect snowfall, as the region continues to warm (e.g., Kunkel et al. 2002 ; Notaro et al. 2014 ), possibly after shorter-term increases as ice cover on the lakes diminish (e.g., Suriano and Leathers 2016 ). It is noted that quite a few important studies have examined the interannual

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

consideration in the development of the atmospheric component of models, although credible simulations of sea ice and snow cover were recognized as important to realistic simulations of the albedo–temperature feedbacks. h. The International Geophysical Year (third International Polar Year) The IGY, also referred to as the third IPY, took place from July 1957 through December 1958. The IGY was an international effort to coordinate the collection of geophysical data from around the world, including both polar

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Roger Marchand

cloud types may have only a small effect on observed visible and infrared images. That is, these clouds produce little contrast in the observed imagery between cloudy and cloud-free conditions, which means that the accuracy of satellite cloud detection schemes is dependent upon the underlying surface, making it important to have multiple validation sites. At high latitudes, where the surface is often snow covered much of the year and the sun is low (near the horizon), cloud detection has

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Maike Ahlgrimm, Richard M. Forbes, Jean-Jacques Morcrette, and Roel A. J. Neggers

. 2006 ). Cheinet et al. (2005) performed an evaluation of the ECMWF model at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which provides an example of how the comprehensive instrumentation, high-quality data, and extensive temporal coverage of ARM site data can characterize deficiencies in the model and give insight into potential model parameterization improvement. Not every aspect of ARM’s impact on NWP at ECMWF can be covered in detail here. The focus of this chapter is therefore to relate three

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