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Masanori Saito, Ping Yang, Norman G. Loeb, and Seiji Kato

1. Introduction Snow plays an essential role in the surface radiation balance as well as the hydrological cycle through complex snow–atmosphere feedbacks ( Randall et al. 1994 ). In particular, surface albedo is one of the main regulators of the radiative balance over snow-covered areas. Even with a persisting snow cover, changes in snow albedo affect air temperature, snow-cover extent, and the melting of snow. Therefore, an accurate snow albedo model in conjunction with a physical snow

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David H. Miller

112JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGYVOLUME 13THE INFLUENCE OF SNOW COVER ON LOCAL CLIMATE N GREENLAND By David E. MillerQuartermaster Research and Development Command 1 (Manuscript received 13 April 1955)ABSTRACTStudy of thermal storage in the local environment (landscape and climatologic air) provides an approachto an understanding of surface-created local climates, such as those in snow-covered regions. Such a localclimate, dominated by the snow surface, occurs 40 to 45 per cent of

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Douglas G. Hahn and J. Shukla

DECEMBER1976 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 2461An Apparent Relationship between Eurasian Snow Cover and Indian Monsoon Rainfall DOUGLAS G. HAHN Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. 08540 J. SarrKZA Geophysical Fluid Dy nannies Program, Princeton Unlvers~ty, Princeton, N.J. 08540 11 August 1976

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Robert V. Dunkle and J. T. Bevans

212JOURNAL OF METEOROLOGY VOLUME 13AN APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE SOLAR REFLECTANCE AND TRANSMITTANCE OF A SNOW COVER By Robert V. Dunkle and J. T. Bevans University of California, Berkeley(Original Manuscript received 23 November 1954 ; revised manuscript received 11 August 1955)ABSTRACTThe transmittance and reflectance of a snow cover has been analyzed by use of the model of a diffusingmedium introduced by Schuster. The general case of a slab of finite thickness

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Stefan Sobolowski, Gavin Gong, and Mingfang Ting

1. Introduction a. Potential influences of snow cover on large-scale circulation Anomalous continental-scale snow cover has the potential to influence both local and downstream climate owing to its radiative and thermal properties, which act to modify the overlying atmosphere (e.g., Barnett et al. 1989 ; Cohen and Rind 1991 ; Leathers and Robinson 1993 ; Cohen and Entekhabi 2001 ). These influences may occur from regional to hemispheric spatial scales and immediate to seasonal time scales

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M. Segal, J. R. Garratt, R. A. Pielke, and Z. Ye

1024 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 48, NO. 8Scaling and Numerical Model Evaluation of Snow-Cover Effects on the Generation and Modification of Daytime Mesoscale Circulations M. SEGAL,* J. R. GARRATT,* * R. A. PIELKEt AND Z. YE- - Department of Physics and Astronorny, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas - *CSIRO Division of dtmospheric Research, Mordialloc

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T. P. Barnett, L. Dümenil, U. Schlese, E. Roeckner, and M. Latif

1 MARCH 1989 BARNETT ET AL. 661The Effect of Eurasian Snow Cover on Regional and Global Climate Variations T. P. BARNETTClimate Research Group, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California L. Df0MENIL, U. SCHLESE AND E. ROECKNERMeteorologisches Institut, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, FRG M. LATIFMax-Planck-lnstitut J~r Meteorologic

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Theodore W. Letcher and Justin R. Minder

the Great Plains into the mountains. The SAF is a positive climate feedback mechanism whereby a warming climate results in reduced snow cover and, subsequently, a reduced surface albedo, thereby increasing the absorbed solar radiation and, as a result, warming at the surface. It is expected that as the climate warms, the SAF will amplify warming over mountain regions with transient snow cover (e.g., Giorgi et al. 1997 ; Salathé et al. 2008 ; Gao et al. 2011 ; Kotlarski et al. 2012 ; Letcher

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Motoi Kumai

sodium chloridenucleus concentration coincided within the experimental error with data taken from the chemical analysisof the South Pole snow cover made by several workers. It was concluded that most of the sodium chloridecontained in the South Pole snow cover was due to the sodium chloride nuclei of snow crystals.1. Introduction A knowledge of the composition of snow crystalnuclei is important in cloud physics This informationhelps to explain how ice crystals nucleate and growunder various

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Ming-Dah Chou, Li Peng, and Albert Arking

decreases at low latitudes but increases at high latitudes. Averaged over the Northern Hemisphere, the change is +2.3-C in the surface temperature and +0.47-C in the earth's brightness temperature. The increase~ in surface temperature is mainly caused by the intensified downward IR radiation in the water vapor bands at all latitudes and by the increased abgorption of solar radiation at high latitudes due to the reduction of ice/snow cover. The effects of some feedback mechanisms on the climate

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