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Tim Bardsley, Andrew Wood, Mike Hobbins, Tracie Kirkham, Laura Briefer, Jeff Niermeyer, and Steven Burian

any magnitude results in decreases in flow. Most of the reduction in flow can be attributed to increased losses due to actual evapotranspiration (ET) during periods when soil moisture is available. ET increases largely because of shortening of the snow-covered season and consequent lengthening of the growing season, as well as increased temperatures. Most ET losses occur during the wetter portion of the season when runoff is higher. ET in the CBRFC model parameterization is constrained by PET and

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Jinyang Du and Qiang Liu

vertically polarized microwave radiation at 12 channels and six frequencies ranging from 6.9 to 89.0 GHz. Its observations at moderately low frequencies are very sensitive to land water in various forms, such as soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow, and are little affected by atmosphere conditions. AMSR-E was launched in June 2002 and functioned well until October 2011. During this period, TGD experienced two impounding stages: the initial stage of impoundment with a water level increasing

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G. T. Aronica and B. Bonaccorso

cover a reasonable number of GCM grid cells ( Arora and Boer 2001 ; Mirza 2002 ; Hamlet and Lettenmaier 2007 ; Gain et al. 2011 ). On the other hand, GCMs are inadequate to simulate regional and local climate change when dealing with spatial scale of ~1000 km 2 or finer, as in most common hydrological applications. Therefore, downscaling or disaggregating techniques (both statistical methods and nested RCMs) are generally used to transfer climate data from GCM scales to the river basin scale

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Mohammad Karamouz, Erfan Goharian, and Sara Nazif

potential evaporation. The new version of the HBV model, HBV-Light, provides an easy to use a Windows version for research and education. Different routines in the model represent snow by a degree-day method; soil water, evaporation, and groundwater by three linear reservoir equations; and channel routing by a triangular weighting function. More descriptions of the model can be found in Bergström ( Bergström 1992 ; Bergström 1995 ) and Harlin and Kung ( Harlin and Kung 1992 ). The first step in

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