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Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Mark Kulie, Nai-Yu Wang, Ralph Ferraro, S. Joseph Munchak, and Veljko Petkovic

algorithm for the TMI instrument as an example. Other sensors have similar values. Table 1. Channel noise and forward model errors utilized in GPROF 2014 for ocean, vegetated surfaces, and snow-covered surfaces. All values are in kelvins. There are additional uncertainties introduced as a result of the finite number of entries in the a priori database. These uncertainties have been estimated to be in the 1.5−2.5-K range. This uncertainty becomes the dominant term if databases are constructed with

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F. Joseph Turk, Z. S. Haddad, and Y. You

where the technique is expected to perform the best, followed by lightly vegetated land, open/frozen lake, forest snow cover, and seasonal wetland. a. Gulf of Mexico The top panel of Fig. 5 depicts the time series of the GMI 10H-, 89H-, and 166H-GHz TB observations (black, green, and red points, respectively) whenever the closest GMI pixel was located within 6-km distance of a point 50 km offshore of Pensacola, Florida (29.9°N 87.2°W), which is over water but within range of the coastal NEXRAD

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Olivier Hautecoeur and Régis Borde

on 19 October 2006) and MetOp-B (launched on 17 September 2012) are in the same polar orbit at 0930 local solar time, equator crossing time, and descending node, and at an altitude of 817 km. The last satellite of the EPS program— MetOp-C —is due to be launched in 2018. The AVHRR/3 on board MetOp is an imager used for global monitoring of various meteorological quantities like sea surface temperature, cloud cover, ice, snow, and vegetation cover characteristics. The AVHRR/3 instrument is

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Takuji Kubota, Toshio Iguchi, Masahiro Kojima, Liang Liao, Takeshi Masaki, Hiroshi Hanado, Robert Meneghini, and Riko Oki

grown. As such, corrections to the surface clutter caused by antenna sidelobes are imperative in order to achieve the sensitivity and accuracy required for estimating the microphysical properties of rain and snow from space. Figure 1 shows classification of surface clutter interference in the spaceborne radar when the satellite altitude is 407 km. As described in Tagawa et al. (2007) , surface clutter is divided into (i) the clutter-free region, (ii) the main lobe clutter region, and (iii) the

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

passive microwave rainfall retrievals . J. Hydrometeor. , 19 , 69 – 85 , . 10.1175/JHM-D-17-0069.1 Romanov , P. , G. Gutman , and I. Csiszar , 2000 : Automated monitoring of snow cover over North America with multispectral satellite data . J. Appl. Meteor. , 39 , 1866 – 1880 ,<1866:AMOSCO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<1866:AMOSCO>2.0.CO;2 Sanò , P. , G. Panegrossi , D. Casella , A. C

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