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Lana Jones and Bonnie Colby

, because applicable public policies must provide for temporary transfers of water entitlements. All of the states covered in the model developed here allow for water leasing. In our data, lease duration for both environmental and nonenvironmental leases varies between a few months and 50 yr, with an average duration of 2 yr. Mean price per acre foot over the study period is $80 for the environmental leases and $101 for the nonenvironmental leases, with both types of leases having a similar mean

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Jase Bernhardt

events, such as very low temperatures, could cause going to church to become an unbearable hardship on a particular Sunday. Moreover, church attendance could also be affected by short-term weather. During periods of constant rainfall, such as the spring, or heavy snowfall in the winter, the dirt roads into town could become impassable due to excessive muddiness or high snow cover. Herman Smith mentioned skipping church because of environmental factors six times in his 1884 diary. Three of those

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Trevor Grout, Yang Hong, Jeffrey Basara, Balabhaskar Balasundaram, Zhenyu Kong, and Satish T. S. Bukkapatnam

publication called Storm Data . The NWS classifies winter weather into five different categories: ice storm, blizzard, winter storm, heavy snow, and winter weather ( NWS 2011b ; Table 1 ). Table 1. Definition of storm type reports from National Weather Service offices. All winter events from 1 November 1999 to 1 May 2010 were manually archived from Storm Data . Information such as date, time, counties affected, storm type, and event summaries were recorded from Storm Data . With few exceptions, one

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Alexander Hall and Georgina Endfield

submission recording snow cover throughout the winter, was encouraged and supported by the climatologist Gordon Manley, who had a longstanding interest in the upland fells in our case-study location ( Veale and Endfield 2014 ). Our postcards invited respondents to record a particular snow memory and return it to the Snow Scenes team ( Fig. 2 ). The terminology on the postcard was left deliberately open to allow respondents to express whatever subjective memories and experiences they wished to share

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Jose A. Algarin Ballesteros and Nathan M. Hitchens

the Midwest region of the United States. As previous research only considers airports on the eastern coast of the United States, this study will consider another region that is also severely affected by winter storms and thus will try to cover a geographical area that has not yet been studied. These results present some differences from research performed in the 1980s and 1990s; while Robinson (1989) used snow as his sole cause for delay, this study classifies delays according to its most likely

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Dana R. N. Brown, Todd J. Brinkman, David L. Verbyla, Caroline L. Brown, Helen S. Cold, and Teresa N. Hollingsworth

1. Introduction In rural Alaskan communities, many of which are off the road system, people rely on rivers and lakes for travel and access to resources ( Johnson et al. 2016 ). During the summer, people navigate large waterbodies by boat or use all-terrain vehicles on a limited terrestrial trail network. However, the ability to traverse the landscape is greatly enhanced during the winter, when waterbodies, small and large, are firmly frozen and snow covers the landscape, allowing access by

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Alan K. Betts

the cold season if snow cover is reduced, because this reduces the strong reflection of sunlight by the snow; this is called the shortwave snow– and ice–albedo feedback. These positive feedbacks operate on global scales at northern latitudes ( Lemke et al. 2007 ) and contribute to the melting of the Arctic sea ice ( Screen and Simmonds 2010 ), but they operate on local scales as well, and impact the winter season in New England ( Betts 2011 ). As Vermont’s climate warms, and the temperature shifts

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Christoph Toeglhofer, Roland Mestel, and Franz Prettenthaler

the early 1970s to around 700 000 in the late 1980s. After a drop of 150 000 in the extreme (i.e., relatively warm) season 1989/90 they then stagnated at around 550 000 (see also Table 1 ). Table 1. Data summary for the winter seasons 1973–2006. Snow data for the mean elevation of ski areas stems from a snow cover model, which uses air temperature and precipitation data to reconstruct historic snow conditions on a 1 km × 1 km grid. The data was provided by the Central Institute for Meteorology

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Lars Böcker and Sofia Thorsson

meteorological station is located at the northern edge of Rotterdam (51°57′N, 4°27′E) approximately 20 km from the sea ( Fig. 1 ). Figure 2 describes observed daily maximum air temperature T a (max) , average wind speed W s (avg) , precipitation sum P (sum) , and the occurrence of snow cover on the ground during the study period, along with normal air temperatures for the period 1980–2010. After a wet July month (not included in this research), warmer-than-average sunny weather occurred in late August

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Kevin Barjenbruch, Carol M. Werner, Randall Graham, Cody Oppermann, Glenn Blackwelder, Jeff Williams, Glen Merrill, Scott Jensen, and Justin Connolly

. Routes that include PeMS traffic sensors are highlighted in red and blue. County names (Davis, Salt Lake, and Summit) and borders (thick gray lines encompassing black dashed lines) are included for reference. b. Storm selection The goal of the research was to select two major storms with different forecast confidence and lead times that might result in different kinds of driving challenges (precipitation rate, snow-covered roads, wet conditions, time of day, etc.). This would potentially maximize

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