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Vanda Grubišić and Brian J. Billings

slot is caused by the subsidence of air in the lee of the mountain. Since the mountain range of interest is snow covered for the major part of the selected October–May period, it is important to distinguish between wave clouds and snow-covered surfaces. Often, mountain valleys remain snow free, which gives snow cover over the mountains a characteristic dendritic appearance. Also, snow shows at a slightly darker tone than clouds in our two categories. Deeper into the winter, questionable cases can

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Yanping Li, Ronald B. Smith, and Vanda Grubišić

wintertime, snow cover increases surface albedo, sharply decreasing the ground sensible heating. In summertime, reduced soil moisture increases the Bowen ratio and the proportion of net radiation converted to sensible heating. To study the seasonal character of the diurnal valley circulation, a series of WRF idealized simulations have been done with a fixed valley depth ( h m = 2000 m) but with modified sensible heating. As heating is increased from 0 to 300 W m −2 , two distinct regimes are seen, with

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