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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, Lawrence Takacs, Andrea Molod, and David Mocko

water cycle in reanalyses ( Roads et al. 2002 ; Bosilovich et al. 2011 ). Precipitation is a key meteorological observable quantity of importance to climate and prediction research, as well as to any number of societal concerns. It is closely tied to short-term local dynamics and physics and also to the large-scale atmospheric water vapor, climate circulation, and energy balance. In this way, the global water cycle spans temporal and spatial scales, while its variability is related to significant

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Kevin Hodges, Alison Cobb, and Pier Luigi Vidale

loss of life and disruption in vulnerable societies ( ECLAC 2009 ). It is therefore important to utilize the available data and new analysis techniques to better understand their properties and behavior, with the aim of mitigating their societal, economic, and environmental impacts. Because of the relatively short observational record of TCs, and problems with sampling within the record, there is considerable uncertainty in the variability of TCs in terms of frequency over climate time scales of

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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Jason B. Roberts

1. Introduction Moisture transport to land from the global oceans is a crucial process linking the global water and energy cycles and is also at the heart of societal concerns regarding terrestrial water availability, food security, exposure to extreme weather events, and climate change. Recent best estimates of the net atmospheric transport of water to land ( Rodell et al. 2015 ) put the climatological amount at 45.8 ± 6.7 × 10 3 km 3 yr −1 , or about 40% of precipitation falling over land

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Ronald Gelaro, Will McCarty, Max J. Suárez, Ricardo Todling, Andrea Molod, Lawrence Takacs, Cynthia A. Randles, Anton Darmenov, Michael G. Bosilovich, Rolf Reichle, Krzysztof Wargan, Lawrence Coy, Richard Cullather, Clara Draper, Santha Akella, Virginie Buchard, Austin Conaty, Arlindo M. da Silva, Wei Gu, Gi-Kong Kim, Randal Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Dagmar Merkova, Jon Eric Nielsen, Gary Partyka, Steven Pawson, William Putman, Michele Rienecker, Siegfried D. Schubert, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Bin Zhao

also capable of assimilating microwave and hyperspectral infrared radiances from planned future satellites, including MetOp-C and JPSS. The temporary spike in the number of QuikSCAT data assimilated in MERRA-2 in late 2000 is due to an error in preprocessing, which led to observations beyond the midswath “sweet spot” being used in the analysis. This has no discernible impact on the quality of the analyzed fields or on the use of other observations in the assimilation system. Fig . 1. Observations

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