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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

areas, and 4) documenting the microphysical chain of events following seeding to determine whether it was consistent with the hypothesis and if it impacts the water supply. Studies of supercooled water over many mountain ranges have produced consistent results, showing that SLW is most often found in clouds: 1) along and over steep mountain slopes; 2) in embedded convection, when it exists; 3) in more laminar orographic clouds where cloud-top temperatures are greater than −15°C; 4) at cloud top

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

bars. They are as follows: Models1 = model, models, prediction, simulation, simulations, and ensemble; Weather2 = weather, precipitation, temperature, rainfall, and forecasts; Climate3 = climate and climatology; Impact4 = impact and impacts; Data assimilation5 = data assimilation and data assimilation system. Moreover, in the latter half of the twentieth century, AMS was actively seeking to increase its societal focus and relevance. In 1976, the pages of BAMS featured a selection of views

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

forecasting approach for improved turbine hub height wind speed predictions. Proc. WindPower 2011 , Anaheim, CA, http://opensky.ucar.edu/islandora/object/conference:3296 . National Research Council , 2009 : Severe Space Weather Events–Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report: Extended Summary . The National Academies Press, 32 pp., https://doi.org/10.17226/12643 . 10.17226/12643 NCAR , 2018 : Who we are. National Center for Atmospheric Research, accessed 29 January 2018, https

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

observing systems, observational challenges, and the global context for observing systems. NRC (2009) also discusses societal needs for observations and a strategy for a “network of networks” to better integrate the many existing networks. Both NRC (2009) and NRC (2003) provide details on the late twentieth/early twenty-first-century growth of networking and the impact this has had on observing systems and how they are used. They discuss the need to coordinate the increasing amounts of data that

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

strive to comprehend what they need. To that end, social scientists find that working with an information value chain approach has proven useful ( Lazo 2017 ; Lazo et al. 2017 ; Haupt et al. 2018 ). Figure 23-1 depicts a basic information value chain. One begins with the end in mind, by visualizing the societal or economic value that one wishes to generate at the end of the process. On the other side of the chain are the environmental conditions or meteorological phenomena that impact the process

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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

lake-effect systems. Of particular significance is the work of Lavoie (1972) , who built a numerical model on the concept of lake-effect systems as layered atmospheric boundary layers. As will be seen, this study helped spark work in simulating lake-effect systems for many subsequent years. b. Climatic variability of lake-effect snows Because of the large impacts that snowfall has on natural and societal features in mid and high-latitude lake regions, there is much interest in whether there are

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

greater societal relevance than global-mean temperature (e.g., the magnitude of regional rainfall change). To the extent that d F ¯ can be used to estimate d T ¯ , radiative forcing then provides a simple but crude metric for assessing the climate impacts of different forcing agents across a range of emission scenarios. Here, we write the relationship between d T ¯ and d F ¯ as (14-2) d T ¯ ≈ λ d F ¯ , where λ is usually referred to as the “climate sensitivity parameter,” the inverse of α

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Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Xiaoling Zhang, A. M. Alexander Chernokulsky, Eigo Tochimoto, Barry Hanstrum, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, David M. L. Sills, Bogdan Antonescu, and Brad Barrett

distances between workers grew. Any work done pre–World War II in Australia, for example, would be unlikely to be noticed by researchers in North America or Europe. 2. The importance of severe convective storm science The impetus for funding abstract research is attributable to the immense societal impact of severe convective storms, in both the damage such storms do and the fatalities and injuries that are inflicted when humans are in the path of severe convective storms. Only part of the economic

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

. Motivated by the recognition that interrelated environmental changes in the Arctic are affecting ecosystems and living resources and are having an impact on local and global communities and economic activities, the SEARCH program is supported by eight federal agencies in the United States. The NSF has overseen much of the planning and organization. The framing of SEARCH is provided by a set of overarching science questions, which are intended to bridge research and societal response: How predictable are

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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

( Stevens and Feingold 2009 ). However, while this study demonstrates that compensating effects can be observed on regional to global scales, we note that local changes in liquid water paths may yet be large and as such, may have significant impacts on precipitation and other societally relevant phenomena at those scales. In addition to adjustments in the warm phase, the cloud phase, cloud height, and cloud cover can also change. A change in the cloud phase can be initiated if anthropogenic activity

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