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Zhiqiang Cui, Zhaoxia Pu, G. David Emmitt, and Steven Greco

life cycle is longer than that of any individual convective element. Long-lived MCSs can be responsible for flash floods and severe weather and thus have a negative societal impact. It has been recognized that MCSs contribute to a large proportion of warm-season rainfall and exhibit strong spatial variability of stratiform rain amount across both the tropics and midlatitudes (e.g., as reviewed by Houze 2004 ). However, numerical prediction and simulation of convective clouds and precipitation

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Cyril Germineaud, Jean-Michel Brankart, and Pierre Brasseur

1. Introduction The global ocean observing system is based on various in situ and satellite components that are mostly intermittent and loosely connected as they often result from monodisciplinary initiatives led by national and/or international agencies. This lack of integration between the observing components was outlined during the OceanObs’09 (see www.oceanobs09.net ) conference, along with the societal needs for a sustained ocean observing system. Accordingly, a task team was formed to

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Jackson Tan, George J. Huffman, David T. Bolvin, and Eric J. Nelkin

1. Introduction The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is a joint satellite mission led by NASA and JAXA with contributions from U.S. and international partners “to unify and advance precipitation measurements from space for scientific research and societal applications” ( Hou et al. 2014 ). GPM mission efforts include instrument calibration, algorithm development, data production, ground validation, and science and societal applications. Central to these efforts is the GPM Core

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Yuhang Zhu, Yineng Li, and Shiqiu Peng

, 2011 : Simulation of tropical cyclones using spectral bin microphysics . Recent Hurricane Research—Climate, Dynamics, and Societal Impacts , A. Lupo, Ed., Intech Open , 197 – 226 . 10.5772/15907 Lai , Z. J. , S. Hao , S. Q. Peng , B. Liu , X. Q. Gu , and Y. K. Qian , 2014 : On improving tropical cyclone track forecasts using a scale-selective data assimilation approach: A case study . Nat. Hazards , 73 , 1353 – 1368 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-014-1155-y . 10.1007/s

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Jerald A. Brotzge, J. Wang, C. D. Thorncroft, E. Joseph, N. Bain, N. Bassill, N. Farruggio, J. M. Freedman, K. Hemker Jr., D. Johnston, E. Kane, S. McKim, S. D. Miller, J. R. Minder, P. Naple, S. Perez, James J. Schwab, M. J. Schwab, and J. Sicker

1. Introduction Natural disasters are common to New York. The state experiences hurricanes, tornadoes, severe thunderstorms and winds, coastal, urban and inland flooding, blizzards, heavy snows, snow squalls, ice storms, ice jams, and extreme heat and cold. Indeed, since 1996 the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has issued 40 weather-related major disaster declarations for the state ( FEMA 2019 ). These high-impact weather events have had a significant impact on life and property

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Michael Carter, J. Marshall Shepherd, Steve Burian, and Indu Jeyachandran

datasets for use with other urban areas, as well as expanding the number of urban canopy parameters available within the datasets, will be necessary to explore this avenue of research to its full potential. Further field campaigns, such as TexAQS, will be an excellent resource for collecting model verification data with the goal of improving model performance. Future work investigating pollutant transport under different flow regimes could also make an important contribution for societal impacts and

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David J. Bodine, Robert D. Palmer, Takashi Maruyama, Caleb J. Fulton, Ye Zhu, and Boon Leng Cheong

measurements ( Lewellen et al. 2008 ). Because large differences between air and scatterer velocities occur in tornadoes, these differences must be corrected in Doppler velocity measurements to obtain accurate wind measurements. Given strong scientific interest in understanding near-surface wind speeds (e.g., to assess societal impacts or understand corner flow structure), mitigating debris centrifuging errors close to the ground remains a critical yet elusive goal. Large debris concentrations are highest

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Marlos Goes, Gustavo Goni, Shenfu Dong, Timothy Boyer, and Molly Baringer

1. Introduction Several efforts are currently under way to evaluate ocean observing platforms using a suite of data assimilation techniques, numerical models, and data impact studies (e.g., Vidard et al. 2007 ; Fujii et al. 2019 ). Although a level of data redundancy is often required to evaluate biases in the ocean observing system ( Lyman et al. 2006 ; Cheng et al. 2014 ), each observing platform has unique capabilities with different strengths to address important observing system

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Eleonora M. C. Demaria, David C. Goodrich, and Kenneth E. Kunkel

1. Introduction Changes in extreme precipitation intensity and duration can have profound natural and societal impacts. As the atmosphere gets warmer, these changes are projected to become more extreme as its water-holding capacity and shifts in circulation dynamics impact precipitation characteristics across the globe ( Hartmann et al. 2013 ). In the United States, trends in daily precipitation extremes have been reported ( Groisman et al. 2005 ; Kunkel et al. 2012 ; Min et al. 2011

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Céline Heuzé, Gisela K. Carvajal, and Leif E. B. Eriksson

1. Introduction Knowledge about near-real-time ocean surface currents is essential to many commercial and societal sectors. These include, for example, life-saving search and rescue missions and oil spill confinement ( Klemas 2012 ), but also navigation planning to reduce fuel consumption ( Ronen 2011 ). Close to the coast, ocean surface currents can be measured by ground-based radars ( Stewart and Joy 1974 ), but no such facilities exist in the open ocean. Furthermore, altimetry products are

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