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Vasubandhu Misra, Tracy Irani, Lisette Staal, Kevin Morris, Tirusew Asefa, Chris Martinez, and Wendy Graham

, evapotranspiration increases with temperature. Therefore, the impact of increasing temperature from climate change can have significant impact in the hydrologic water balance and water availability for public supply in Florida. Prior to the inception of Florida Water and Climate Alliance (FloridaWCA), survey results in the tri-state region of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida indicated a significant lack of use and awareness of seasonal climate and drought forecast information by water resource managers ( Bolson et

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Castle A. Williams and Gina M. Eosco

relevant research and propose best practices. Pulling from various committees (e.g., NWA Committee on Societal Impacts), boards (e.g., AMS Board on Enterprise Communication), organizations (e.g., Natural Hazards Center), and outside experts (e.g., risk communication experts, linguists, graphic designers), the weather enterprise could form a diverse and representative ad hoc committee to explore message consistency from an enterprise-wide perspective. This strategy is adapted from the field of warning

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Jonathan J. Rutz and Chris V. Gibson

temperatures, must be in place if the conditions are to impact public safety. The use of specific criteria to classify events (e.g., 6 inches of snow in 12 hours is a winter storm), while often useful, does not account for the other environmental factors influencing road surface conditions. Societal factors also play a role: two inches of accumulating snow on road surfaces during rush hour likely constitutes a high-impact event, but two inches of snow melting on contact with the road likely does not. While

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Xubin Zeng, Robert Atlas, Ronald J. Birk, Frederick H. Carr, Matthew J. Carrier, Lidia Cucurull, William H. Hooke, Eugenia Kalnay, Raghu Murtugudde, Derek J. Posselt, Joellen L. Russell, Daniel P. Tyndall, Robert A. Weller, and Fuqing Zhang

impacts of observing systems and/or observation denial on forecast performance based on physical parameters, while treating all forecast locations, times, and circumstances as equal. The approach should be extended to assess societal impacts on lives and property. In other words, there are national priorities (e.g., saving lives) where monetary impacts are not the primary consideration, and then there are priorities constrained by financial resources. This could be a possible additional avenue of

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Michael F. Squires, Jay H. Lawrimore, Richard R. Heim Jr., David A. Robinson, Mathieu R. Gerbush, and Thomas W. Estilow

A new snowfall index quantifies the societal impact of snowstorms in the eastern United States from 1900 to the present. Large snowstorms have a major impact on society in terms of human life, economic loss, and disruption. Examples include the Chicago blizzard of 1967 that caused the deaths of 45 people and economic losses to local business estimated to be $150 million (1967 U.S. dollars) ( Doesken and Judson 1996 ). The 1993 “Superstorm” was responsible for 270 deaths and $1.8 billion in

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Louis W. Uccellini and John E. Ten Hoeve

, water, and climate events, such as heavy rainfall and droughts, are increasing in frequency and severity, while the impacts of coastal storms are also exacerbated by the impacts of rising sea levels related to our changing climate ( Gleason et al. 2008 ; Sweet et al. 2018 ; U.S. Global Change Research Program 2018 ). This confluence of societal and natural factors is creating a nation more vulnerable to extreme events with an increasing cost of recovery. While meteorologists and hydrologists are

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Samuel P. Lillo, David B. Parsons, and Malaquias Peña

This study discusses the roles that a strong El Niño, the midlatitude wave guide, and long-lived Rossby wave packets played in a major winter storm that impacted Mexico in March 2016. An extreme winter storm impacted Mexico in March 2016, in association with an exceptionally deep upper-level trough characterized by 500-hPa heights near nine standard deviations below normal ( Fig. 1a ). This storm had numerous detrimental societal and economic impacts. Much of Mexico was in a state of emergency

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Friederike E. L. Otto, Luke Harrington, Katharina Schmitt, Sjoukje Philip, Sarah Kew, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Roop Singh, Joyce Kimutai, and Piotr Wolski

allow for new and different disaster risk reduction schemes to be implemented and to “build back better” based on changing risks [see, e.g., Kruse and Seidl (2013) on the importance of reactive disaster management]. Of course, the availability of event attribution information is not ultimately required to inform timely adaptation decisions, and whether and to what extent weather turns into disasters is not determined by the availability of scientific information but societal and governance factors

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Neville Nicholls

The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon affects the atmosphere and ocean over much of the globe. The resultant atmospheric and oceanic anomalies can produce a variety of biological and societal impacts. Three examples of impacts that may be predictable by monitoring simple indices of ENSO are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such “direct” prediction of impacts are considered.

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