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Paul A. T. Higgins and Jonah V. Steinbuck

biological systems respond), and social sciences (e.g., how effectively humanity can adapt to and cope with impacts). Furthermore, subjective views and value judgments heavily influence how individuals perceive both the risks of climate change and the potential benefits and costs of risk management options ( Leiserowitz et al. 2011a , b ). A wide range of modeling approaches is currently used to explore the societal consequences of climate change, each of which contributes significantly to our assessment

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Benjamin J. Hatchett and Daniel J. McEvoy

temporal evolution of snow droughts in terms of persistent dry spells or individual storm events. Understanding the hydrometeorological processes that create snow droughts will aid in evaluating their impacts on consumptive uses that depend on snowmelt-derived runoff or ecological processes that depend on the presence of a snowpack. At present, these specific impacts are not well characterized beyond broad knowledge that shifts from snow to rain reduce warm-season streamflow ( Berghuijs et al. 2014

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

potential future changes in NHJ amplitude and persistence have led to a recent surge in research interest in NHJ climatology ( Rikus 2015 ; Woollings et al. 2014 ). This interest is not limited to the meteorological and climate modeling community but has permeated into research fields that study the impact of climate and future climate change on ecosystem and societal dynamics (e.g., Stark et al. 2016 ). However, the NHJ is a complex system of thousands of kilometers in length and hundreds of

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Brent M. Lofgren, Andrew D. Gronewold, Anthony Acciaioli, Jessica Cherry, Allison Steiner, and David Watkins

aspects of the earth’s physical, ecological, and human systems. Many of these key impacts are manifested in the hydrologic cycle ( Kundzewicz et al. 2007 ). The wide-ranging potential effects of ACC on hydrology have been addressed in prior studies with varying methodology (e.g., Wood et al. 1999 ; Held and Soden 2006 ; Angel and Kunkel 2010 ; Milly and Dunne 2011 ). These studies have highlighted the possibility of the role of climate change on altered streamflow and inland water body levels

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Diandong Ren, Lance M. Leslie, Rong Fu, Robert E. Dickinson, and Xiang Xin

an important factor in desertification over mountainous regions, because they are very effective in transferring biomass from live to dead respiring pools ( Ren et al. 2009 ). Forecasting landslide timings and impacts has been a significant research topic in geotechnical engineering over the last four decades. However, because of the complexity of natural conditions (e.g., geometrical and geological variability, nonlinear time-displacements relationships, and the superposition of seasonal

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A. J. Pitman and S. E. Perkins

1. Introduction Reliable projections of the impact of increasing greenhouse gases on the global, continental, and regional scale remains a major scientific challenge. At the heart of climate projections are coupled climate models. These tools underpin assessments by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) including the recent Fourth Assessment Report (AR4; Solomon et al. 2007 ). Climate models are based on well-established physical principles, and Randall et al. ( Randall et al

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Viorel Badescu

1. Introduction The impact hazard from extraterrestrial bodies tends to evolve in the recent years from a pure scientific problem toward a serious societal issue. The environmental consequences from impacts are usually classified in three size ranges ( Toon et al. 1997 ): (i) regional disasters due to impacts of multi-hundred-meter objects; (ii) civilization-ending impacts by multikilometer objects; and (iii) Cretaceous–Tertiary-like (K/T for short) cataclysms that yield mass extinctions

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J. Marshall Shepherd

aerosols on short- and long-term climate change. An article discussing such issues is forthcoming (Jin and Shepherd 2005: manuscript submitted to Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. ). Additionally, the author has contributed text to the next Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report, which will be published in a few years. 6.6. Assessment of the impact of urban-induced rainfall on societal applications For example, Bertness ( Bertness 1980 ) provided an overview of rain-related impacts

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Shuguang Liu, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Lena R. Boysen, James D. Ford, Andrew Fox, Kevin Gallo, Jerry Hatfield, Geoffrey M. Henebry, Thomas G. Huntington, Zhihua Liu, Thomas R. Loveland, Richard J. Norby, Terry Sohl, Allison L. Steiner, Wenping Yuan, Zhao Zhang, and Shuqing Zhao

practice-relevant adaptation science that provides a basis for preparing for climate change impacts ( Lemos et al. 2012 ; Moss et al. 2013 ). There are many serious gaps, however, in addressing this challenge. Vulnerability assessments, for example, are needed to understand how land, atmospheric, and societal changes interact to affect critical ecosystem services ( Turner et al. 2003 ; Smit and Wandel 2006 ; Stern et al. 2013 ). Understanding of the pathways through which future climate change will

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Pierre Valty, Olivier de Viron, Isabelle Panet, and Xavier Collilieux

1. Introduction Monitoring and modeling Earth’s water cycle is a key scientific issue. On land, knowing how water resources evolve and how they respond and interact with the climate variations has a strong societal impact in the context of global change. In particular, the knowledge of the interannual dynamics of water mass redistributions at the regional scale is mandatory to estimate the effects of the global change on the water cycle. At this time scale, in Europe, the zonal atmospheric

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