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Jennifer L. Irish, Donald T. Resio, and Jay J. Ratcliff

only in the context of optimizing grid resolution for numerical surge simulation. Most methods to characterize surge in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, while considering storm size, have followed the earlier works reported in the 1950s through the 1970s and have not analyzed a large enough hurricane size range, particularly in conjunction with very shallow continental shelves, to fully capture the impact of hurricane size on surge generation (e.g., Taylor 1980 ; Russo 1998 ; Weisberg and Zheng

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Ludivine Oruba, Serge Planes, Gilles Siu, Yannick Chancerelle, and Emmanuel Dormy

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones (TCs) are among the most deadly and destructive natural disasters on Earth. Despite their high societal impact and the numerous investigations on TCs, their dynamics and their interaction with the upper ocean still present a large number of fascinating and unresolved issues (e.g., Emanuel 2003 ; Wang 2012 ). French Polynesia is not generally regarded as a cyclone-prone area, despite the warm surrounding ocean, because of the relatively strong wind shear over

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A. Timmermann, H. U. Voss, and R. Pasmanter

was responsible for about 2000 deaths. The impacts of the even stronger 1997/98 El Niño were somewhat mitigated by prediction and monitoring based on the marked increase in our understanding in the intervening 15 years. Hence, prediction of ENSO-related climate anomalies and their societal and ecological impacts has become an important part of climate research. Our understanding of ENSO rests on a hypothesis first put forward by Bjerknes (1969) , and supplemented by a later understanding of

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Haoyu Jiang and Lin Mu

1. Introduction Wind-generated surface gravity waves (simply called waves hereafter) are a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon at the air–sea interface. They impact many aspects of human life, from industrial activities such as seafaring and port operations to recreational activities like surfing and yachting, and play a crucial role in many geophysical processes such as momentum exchange at the air–sea boundary layer. The studies of wave climate are important from both societal and

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David M. Fratantoni and Deborah A. Glickson

, 1999 ). After translating for 3–4 months the rings are destroyed through interaction with abrupt topography in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles. Locally, NBC rings and their filamentary remains episodically disrupt surface circulation patterns in the eastern Caribbean, impact the distributions of salinity and icthyoplankton (e.g., Kelly et al. 2000 ; Cowen and Castro 1994 ; Borstad 1982 ), and pose a physical threat to expanding offshore oil and gas exploration on the South American

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Ursula Schauer and Martin Losch

parameters may cause considerable confusion if they come without clear specification through a name or a unit. For example, sound pressure level (loudness) is a parameter in acoustics, which needs a reference pressure. Since, for practical reasons, the reference pressure used in underwater acoustics is different from that used in air acoustics, and even though these references are internationally accepted standards, misunderstandings easily appear evoking even societal debates ( Finfer et al. 2008

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Baolan Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lisan Yu

variability. As discussed in section 3c , the impact of mesoscale variability on the total S ann were small due to the cancellation effect on the area integration. Further work is needed to provide a systematic analysis of the interaction among the eddy activities, the frontal variation and the evolution of the mode water. Our study may have broad environmental and societal impacts. On the one hand, the poleward shift of the KE front could change the overlaying atmospheric circulation and storm track

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Laurie L. Trenary and Weiqing Han

Behera 2005 ; Hermes and Reason 2008 ; Yokoi et al. 2008 ; Tozuka et al. 2010 ). This region is often referred to as the thermocline ridge of the Indian Ocean (TRIO) and is maintained by the overlying mean negative wind stress curl associated with the northward weakening of the southeasterly trades ( McCreary et al. 1993 ). In this region, thermocline depth variability can have significant impacts on sea surface temperature (SST) at intraseasonal ( Harrison and Vecchi 2001 ; Saji et al. 2006

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David M. Fratantoni and Philip L. Richardson

, as we observed, tend to stall and coalesce to the north of Barbados. As depicted by the float and drifter observations, the surface layers of simulated rings can move independently from subsurface layers with the deep portions translating more slowly than the surface portions. NBC rings constitute the largest source of episodic oceanic variability in the region east of the Lesser Antilles. An important question of societal relevance is whether the impact of NBC rings on the circulation and water

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Lynn K. Shay, Thomas M. Cook, Zachariah R. Hallock, Brian K. Haus, Hans C. Graber, and Jorge Martinez

1. Introduction The Chesapeake Bay system is surrounded by tributaries along both the eastern and western shores of Virginia that contribute to a freshwater influx into this broad and complex estuary ( Officer 1976 ). In this regime, terrestial–atmospheric–estuarine interactions have a pronounced impact on the coastal oceanic circulation by modulating buoyancy fluxes within Chesapeake Bay (CB). The largest amount of freshwater influx occurs during the spring due to increased precipitation by

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