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Clifford Mass and Brigid Dotson

in which they develop, describes some intense events with large societal impacts, considers a well-simulated recent event (the 2006 Hanukkah Eve storm), and identifies some outstanding scientific questions regarding their development and dynamics. 2. Historical review This section describes the general characteristics and societal impacts of a collection of strong midlatitude cyclones that have produced substantial damage and economic loss over the northwest United States. The selection of these

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

directly impact marine interests and coastlines. In addition, extreme inland precipitation can occur within ET systems, sometimes far removed from the cyclone center. Like the wind field, the precipitation distribution tends to shift during the ET process. Jones et al. (2003) emphasized the importance of better understanding the evolution and prediction of these hazards to mitigate the societal impacts of a given ET event. Many studies have responded to these research needs since Jones et al. (2003

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

conservation of mass and circulation within a PV isoline on an isentropic surface. The computation of the MLM results in a stronger background flow than the climatological time average and, hence, stronger PV gradients. If one transcends linear theory and accounts for nonlinear effects, the waves do have an impact on the background state. In practice it may, therefore, be an advantage to use a nonstationary background flow, which implicitly accounts for the feedback of the waves on the waveguide. For

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

justification for the International H 2 O Project (IHOP_2002; Weckwerth et al. 2004 ). IHOP_2002 was actually born from the merger of several different efforts that had overlapping objectives related to water vapor: (i) United States Weather Research Program (USWRP)-funded research, led by D. Parsons and M. Hardesty, to examine the impact of improved water vapor measurements on the prediction of the initiation and evolution of convective systems, (ii) questions on the representativeness of soundings due to

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas, and Thilo Kühne

on 10 July 1916) . Meteor. Z. , 43 , 1 – 14 . Doswell , C. A. , III , 2003 : Societal impacts of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes: Lessons learned and implications for Europe . Atmos. Res. , 67–68 , 135 – 152 , doi: 10.1016/S0169-8095(03)00048-6 . Doswell , C. A. , III , and D. W. Burgess , 1988 : On some issues of United States tornado climatology . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 116 , 495 – 501 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<0495:OSIOUS>2.0.CO;2 . Dotzek , N. , 2001 : Tornadoes in

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