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Alison M. Meadow, Daniel B. Ferguson, Zack Guido, Alexandra Horangic, Gigi Owen, and Tamara Wall

1. Introduction As we come to grips with the impacts of climate change on our natural and cultural resources, our cities and towns, and our personal health and well-being, the production of “usable” climate knowledge—information that can help inform management, planning, and governance—has become a goal for many scientists, agencies, and governments. One promising way to develop usable climate knowledge is to coproduce it. Coproduction of knowledge is the process of producing usable, or

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Savin S. Chand, Lynda E. Chambers, Mike Waiwai, Philip Malsale, and Elisabeth Thompson

for vital infrastructure, facilities, agriculture, and food security in PIC communities (e.g., Mimura et al. 2007 ; Mercer et al. 2007 ). For example, timely and accurate forecasts of weather can have considerable societal and economic benefits in terms of making more effective and coordinated disaster-management decisions. More importantly, tailoring forecasts to local needs can help rural farmers, for example, by adopting appropriate agricultural practices such as adjusting harvesting and

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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

traditional indicators due to climate change (e.g., King et al. 2008 ; Kaniaha et al. 2012 ; Seuseu et al. 2013 ; Rivero-Romero et al. 2016 ), and that this will have negative impacts on the health of environments and people ( Balick et al. 2019 ). Traditional seasonal calendars (herein referred to as seasonal calendars) have been used to document seasonal cycles and the communities’ relationships with their environment ( Mondragón 2014 ; Rubis and Nakashima 2014 ; Kassam et al. 2018 ). Consequently

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Mathew Alexander Stiller-Reeve, David B. Stephenson, and Thomas Spengler

their experiences with weather and climate ( Lemos 2008 ; Marx et al. 2007 ; Moss et al. 2013 ; Rosenzweig and Binswanger 1993 ; Weber 2006 ). It is therefore important to understand how the stakeholders define weather events or seasons that impact their lives, in order to understand the gap between producers and users of climate information ( Buontempo et al. 2014 ). This gap can be particularly wide if stakeholders’ definitions of an event differ from the wider research community ( Pennesi

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

1. Introduction a. Definitions of the Sahel The Sahel is a large and multifaceted region of sub-Saharan Africa. The climate and ecology, history, and political organization of Sahelian countries are diverse and dynamic ( Raynaut et al. 1997 ). Historically, scholarly investigations of the Sahel have revolved around three subjects: the ancient kingdoms and trade routes, the legacy of colonialism and the formation of the modern nation state, and the drivers and impacts of the harsh environment

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Chie Sakakibara

are also concerned about the actual and potential impact of climate change on their cultural, spiritual, and economic health. The Pachauri and Reisinger (2007) asserted that impacts on ice, snow, and glaciers would be significant, which would result in a tremendous impact upon the people’s subsistence. Updates to these reports suggest that changes are occurring faster than anticipated: in 2007, Arctic sea ice reached a record low ( NASA Earth Observatory 2007 ), and in 2008 both the northeast

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Shannon M. McNeeley

taken to respond to, and anticipate, harmful climate change impacts in order to reduce the impacts to well-being and the disruption of key natural resource flows for present and future generations ( McNeeley 2012 ). A sustainable adaptation framework treats issues of poverty, environment, and climate change as linked in a system of interacting causes and effects ( Eriksen et al. 2007 ; O’Brien and Leichenko 2008 ). It is worth noting that sustainability is a contested notion, whereby it has

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Susan A. Crate

resettle “climate refugees” is clear evidence that major relocations will be necessary ( Hulme et al. 2008 ; Biermann and Boas 2008 ), with some estimating that 200 million people will have to relocate as a result of climate change impacts by the year 2050 ( Biermann and Boas 2008 , p. 10). In the meantime, adaptation is taking priority in international climate research and policy initiatives. Physical and social scientists alike are actively contributing to setting the research priorities and

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L. Jen Shaffer and Leocadia Naiene

vegetation production and distribution in southern Mozambique ( Rutherford and Westfall 2003 ). Subsistence dependency on domestic and wild vegetation suggests that residents of Matutúine District would be keenly aware of any climate and climate-associated environmental changes affecting their survival. In light of projected impacts to food security and disaster risk for this region, specific details about how populations have been, and expect to be, affected by climate change are important for planning

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Randy A. Peppler

Indigenous peoples and to the fledgling field of “ethnoclimatology” (e.g., Orlove et al. 2002 ). Given the contemporary relevance of climate change and its impacts on Indigenous peoples in general (e.g., Wildcat 2013 ) and on specific aspects of their culture and existence such as traditional foods (e.g., Lynn et al. 2013 ), water resources (e.g., Cozzetto et al. 2013 ), displacement and relocation (e.g., Farbotko and Lazrus 2012 ; Maldonado et al. 2013 ), risk (e.g., Lazrus 2015 ), and signature

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