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Fuqing Zhang, Rebecca E. Morss, J. A. Sippel, T. K. Beckman, N. C. Clements, N. L. Hampshire, J. N. Harvey, J. M. Hernandez, Z. C. Morgan, R. M. Mosier, S. Wang, and S. D. Winkley

evacuees were trapped on roadways for close to a day, experiencing fuel, food, and water shortages; lack of access to facilities; and significant frustration. Had the storm hit the Houston–Galveston area directly, the consequences would likely have been formidable, especially given that so many people were trapped on roads. After witnessing Rita and its impacts, several meteorology students at Texas A&M University became interested in investigating Rita’s forecasts and societal impacts in greater depth

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Linda Anderson-Berry, Tom Keenan, John Bally, Roger Pielke Jr., Roy Leigh, and David King

Olympics and Paralympics. The goal of the WWRP S2000 FDP was “to demonstrate the capability of modern forecast systems and to quantify the associated benefits in the delivery of a real-time nowcast service.” To this end, the WWRP S2000 FDP included a largely qualitative and limited quantitative assessment of the social, societal, and economic impacts of the project's forecasts. The Olympic Games is one of a small number of regular large-scale events of international significance where the potential for

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Jeffrey K. Lazo, Donald M. Waldman, Betty Hearn Morrow, and Jennifer A. Thacher

summary on Miami one-on-one cognitive interviews—Hurricane forecast valuation study. Societal Impacts Program, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 24 pp . Letson, D. , Sutter D. , and Lazo J. K. , 2007 : The economic value of hurricane forecasts: An overview and research needs. Nat. Hazards Rev. , 8 ( 3 ) 78 – 86 . 10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2007)8:3(78) Lindell, M. K. , and Prater C. S. , 2007 : Critical behavioral assumptions in evacuation time estimate analysis for private

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Jason Naylor and Aaron Sexton

damage in the United States ( Smith and Katz 2013 ). Because of the strong societal impact, it is important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of damaging severe weather events. The climatology of severe weather in the United States has been studied extensively. Tornadoes (and tornadic environments) are most frequent across the Great Plains (e.g., Brooks et al. 2003 ) while large hail events are most common in the High Plains region (e.g., Doswell et al. 2005 ; Cintineo et al

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Jen Henderson, Erik R. Nielsen, Gregory R. Herman, and Russ S. Schumacher

, however briefly, potential impacts of TORFFs on a vulnerable public. Fig . 2. (a),(c) Radar reflectivity and(b),(d) velocity for Telmin valid for the late March TORFF event. In (a) and (b) the broad convective element responsible for producing the tornado and flash flooding is shown. In (c) and (d) a zoomed in version of (a) and (b) is shown, respectively, highlighting part of the overlapping tornado (red) and flash flood (green) polygons where the tornado and flash flooding co-occurred. The white

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Julie L. Demuth, Rebecca E. Morss, Jeffrey K. Lazo, and Douglas C. Hilderbrand

spatial extent, the event magnitude, the physical and societal impacts of an event, and the uncertainty associated with each of these aspects. Our study also only examined two weather scenarios in depth—one with a rapid-onset, short-duration warning and one with a delayed-start, longer-duration watch. As a first test of other scenarios, we further evaluated respondents' preferences for the box attribute for a severe thunderstorm watch and an urban and small stream advisory , each in the first

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Scott F. Blair and Jared W. Leighton

States . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 92 , 567 – 582 , doi:10.1175/2010BAMS3062.1 . Demuth, J. L. , Morrow B. H. , and Lazo J. K. , 2009 : Weather forecast uncertainty information: An exploratory study with broadcast meteorologists . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 90 , 1614 – 1618 , doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2787.1 . Dix, D. , and Fieux J. , 2011 : Atlanta Integrated Warning Team workshop: A WAS*IS success. Weather and Society Watch, Vol. 5, No. 4, NCAR Societal Impacts Program, Boulder, CO

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Erik R. Nielsen, Gregory R. Herman, Robert C. Tournay, John M. Peters, and Russ S. Schumacher

warning. There are numerous historical examples of the impacts that TORFF events can have on society. On 31 May 2013, a TORFF event in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, tragically illustrated examples of the additional complexities in warning dissemination and risk perception in a multithreat, collocated event, which further magnified the danger beyond the meteorological hazard alone. Thirteen deaths were associated from the flash flooding whereas eight deaths were directly associated with the tornado. Perhaps

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J. Brotzge and S. Erickson

and impacts of unwarned tornadoes on the fatality rates from weak tornadoes ( Doswell 2007 ). b. Geographical distribution A second hypothesis tested is that some tornadoes simply are much easier to detect and warn in some parts of the country than in others. To evaluate this assumption, the tornado reports were sorted among four broad geographic regions: southeast (SE), midwest–east (MW), plains, and west ( Fig. 1 ). The distributions of tornadoes by region and warning are shown in Table 4 . The

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David R. Harrison and Christopher D. Karstens

specific information about the potential impacts of the hazard ( NWS 2009 ). After an initial warning is transmitted to the public, forecasters are able to issue updates for that warning via a separate product, known as a severe weather statement (SVS). An SVS can be used to update a warning with new information such as a spotter report, correct errors in a warning, notify the public that a warning will be allowed to expire, or cancel a warning if the storm moves out of the warned area or weakens below

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