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Alan J. Hewitt, Ben B. B. Booth, Chris D. Jones, Eddy S. Robertson, Andy J. Wiltshire, Philip G. Sansom, David B. Stephenson, and Stan Yip

in Fig. 2 , but for decadal (a)–(d) ocean and (e)–(h) land carbon fluxes for the period 2006–95. A subset of GCMs is highlighted for the global atmosphere–land carbon fluxes in (e). Fig. 4. As in Fig. 2 , but for decadal (a)–(d) Southern Ocean and (e)–(h) North Atlantic Ocean carbon fluxes for the period 2006–95. Fig. 5. As in Fig. 2 , but for decadal carbon fluxes of (a)–(d) northern high-latitude land, (e)–(h) northern temperate land, and (i)–(l) tropical land for the period 2006–95. A

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, and Colm Sweeney

1. Introduction The global ocean takes up more than a quarter of the total anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that is released into the atmosphere, and the Southern Ocean is thought to be responsible for more than 40% of the global ocean’s uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 (e.g., Toggweiler and Samuels 1995 ; Orr et al. 2001 ; Sarmiento et al. 2004 ; Russell et al. 2006 ; Marinov et al. 2006 ; Mikaloff Fletcher et al. 2006 ). Southern Ocean net uptake of anthropogenic and natural CO 2 is

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Jörg Schwinger, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Christoph Heinze, Laurent Bopp, James R. Christian, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Chris D. Jones, David Salas-Mélia, Joachim Segschneider, Roland Séférian, and Ian Totterdell

Southern Ocean. In the framework of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ( Taylor et al. 2012 ), a set of fully, biogeochemically, and radiatively coupled simulations has been performed with a number of earth system models (see Table 1 for a list of the CMIP5 models). Authors of previous studies ( Plattner et al. 2008 ; Gregory et al. 2009 ; Zickfeld et al. 2011 ) recommended employing concentration-driven rather than emission-driven scenarios for model intercomparison

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A. Anav, P. Friedlingstein, M. Kidston, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, P. Cox, C. Jones, M. Jung, R. Myneni, and Z. Zhu

models at the global scale or over large latitudinal bands (see below). For all other model variables, the evaluation is performed at the grid level, conserving the spatial information. However, when presenting the results, all model performances are averaged over the following domains for land variables: global (90°S–90°N), Southern Hemisphere (20°–90°S), Northern Hemisphere (20°–90°N), and the tropics (20°S–20°N). Considering the ocean carbon, according to Gruber et al. (2009) , we aggregate

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Spencer Liddicoat, Chris Jones, and Eddy Robertson

°N ( Fig. 4d ). This gain in vegetation carbon is offset by loss of soil carbon through heterotrophic respiration in excess of 150 GtC yr −1 , much of which occurs in southern Asia, South America, and central Africa, from the 2150s onward. The net result of the land and ocean uptake is the requirement for very low emissions following the stabilization of atmospheric CO 2 concentration in 2240. The cumulative total of E FF under the RCP8.5 scenario from 2006 to 2100 is 1873 GtC compared with

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Lifen Jiang, Yaner Yan, Oleksandra Hararuk, Nathaniel Mikle, Jianyang Xia, Zheng Shi, Jerry Tjiputra, Tongwen Wu, and Yiqi Luo

the terrestrial vegetation sink is crucial to improve future climate projections. In their study, Arora et al. (2013) highlighted the larger inconsistencies in the carbon–climate and carbon–concentration feedback parameters in the land carbon cycle component than in the ocean simulated by Earth system models (ESMs) involved in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). In addition, there was a significant model spread in the twenty-first-century compatible CO 2 emissions

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