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Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Rolf H. Reichle, and Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

1. Introduction Assimilating low-frequency (1–10 GHz) passive microwave observations into land surface models is expected to improve estimates of land surface conditions and, hence, weather and climate predictions. Global observations of brightness temperatures (Tb) are available from the (late) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Kerr et al. 2010 ) mission, and Aquarius ( Le Vine et al. 2007 ). Soil moisture has a

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Haolu Shang, Li Jia, and Massimo Menenti

are surrounded by mountains. The shape of the Poyang Lake floodplain looks like a quadrangle, with its northern edge facing to the northwest and its southern edge facing to the southeast. The eastern and western edges are almost parallel. The mean north–south distance is about 140 km, and the mean east–west distance is about 120 km. The lake has an irregular shape; it is located in the central floodplain and its eastern boundary is elongated in the same way as the eastern edge of the floodplain

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Junchao Shi, Massimo Menenti, and Roderik Lindenbergh

laser signals and surface irregularity, and (ii) we derive the representative parameters of this irregularity as roughness from spaceborne laser altimetry. 2. Study area and data a. Study area In this study, we consider the glaciers Guren, Guila, Lisheng, and Bili located on the southern slope of the Nyainqêntanglha range (30°19′0″N, 90°7′50″E). It is a mountain range lying approximately 300 km northwest of Lhasa in central Tibet ( Caidong and Asgeir 2010 ). The ice volume of about 4900 km 3 is

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