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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

1. Introduction and outline The Southern Ocean (SO) plays a fundamental role in setting the global climate, making detailed understanding of air–sea buoyancy fluxes in the region indispensable for climate modeling and prediction. However, the sparseness of both conventional and remotely sensed observations causes the availability and accuracy of air–sea buoyancy flux estimates to be especially poor in this region ( Josey et al. 1999 ; Taylor 2000 ; Kubota et al. 2003 ; Dong et al. 2007

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Matthew R. Mazloff

) or to an evolving modeled climate system ( Fyfe and Saenko 2006 ). These previous investigations have focused, by necessity, on large-scale changes in the forcing, and have had difficulties separating various controls. These works have determined that the ACC transport is determined by thermodynamics, as well as dynamics, making a simple relationship impossible to find ( Cai and Baines 1996 ; Gnanadesikan and Hallberg 2000 ). The Southern Ocean winds are highly variable on all time scales. To

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

1. Introduction The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the dominant zonally oriented flow of the Southern Ocean. It consists of multiple deep-reaching circumpolar jets, which are geostrophic and coincide with sharp frontal gradients in water properties. These narrow fronts separate the subantarctic water mass to the north from the colder Antarctic water to the south and are thought to be important for Subantarctic Mode Water formation and the meridional overturning circulation ( Nowlin et

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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

southern oceans. Integrating along the mean ice-free edges with a 2° latitude width indicates that, on average, the magnitude of SHF is about 50 W m −2 along the northern edge in the boreal winter and 21 W m −2 along the southern edge in the austral winter (not shown). The largest SHF is found near the sea ice edges in the Norwegian Sea, with magnitude exceeding 170 W m −2 . It appears that the magnitude of the wintertime mean SHF near the ice edges is equivalent to that of SHF over the Gulf Stream

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Lei Shi, Ge Peng, and John J. Bates

2001 ). One year of surface temperature and specific humidity data from ship measurements are also incorporated as a calibration dataset. The ship measurements include data from voluntary observing ships covering a large area of northern high-latitude and a smaller portion of southern high-latitude oceans. Among the many variables, the ECMWF data include surface skin temperature, air temperature, and specific humidity. The global model reanalysis data are selected instead of the surface in situ

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

Southern Ocean fixed domain is determined by the farthest north wintertime sea ice edge. In support of these budget comparisons, the evaluation of near-surface state variables against station observations is also instructive. The results presented are for the period 1979–2005. Surface moisture flux and accumulation are given in water-equivalent units. Fig . 1. Regions of study for (a) the Northern Hemisphere and (b) the Southern Hemisphere. Thick line indicates the 70° parallel. Continental areas

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

the ocean is confined to the northern coastal polynya regions, and freshwater (negative salt) input is shown in most of other sea ice zones. The freshwater input is large, particularly in the southern Sea of Okhotsk. These imply that ice formed in the northern polynyas is advected to the south and subsequently melted there, which corresponds to negative heat transport from north to south, as shown by the annual mean net heat flux ( Fig. 3a ). The freshwater input is relatively large in the KB

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

studies, the evaluation of near-surface state variables against in situ station observations is also instructive. The results presented here are for the years 1979–2005. Fig . 1. Regions of study for (a) the Northern Hemisphere and (b) the Southern Hemisphere. Dotted lines are indicated at every 30° of longitude and 10° of latitude. Bold line indicates the 70° parallel. Continental areas are shaded gray. For the Northern Hemisphere, the Arctic Ocean domain is indicated by diagonal hatching, and the

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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

that the Aleutian low is dominant in southern Alaska and high pressure is dominant over the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas ( Cassano et al. 2006 ). Barrow is found to be at the important latitude where neutral net CRF (negative shortwave CRFs and positive longwave CRFs) nearly cancel each other on an annual average because the net CRFs changes from negative to positive values from Alaska to the Beaufort Sea ( Dong et al. 2010 ) . The complexity in the understanding of changes in the Alaskan region is a

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