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Vasubandhu Misra and Amit Bhardwaj

temperature (SST) variations, focusing on the teleconnection of the NEM variations with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variations in the tropical Pacific Ocean. 2. Data and methodology Defining the NEM is based on a similar methodology used for defining the SISM ( Noska and Misra 2016 ). However, a major difference in the two definitions is that we focus on rainfall for the SISM and surface temperature for the NEM. This choice of different variables in the definition of onset/demise of the SISM

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Robert Wood, Kuan-Ting O, Christopher S. Bretherton, Johannes Mohrmann, Bruce. A. Albrecht, Paquita Zuidema, Virendra Ghate, Chris Schwartz, Ed Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, and Patrick Minnis

. Wood , and A. Muhlbauer , 2013 : Marine boundary layer cloud regimes and POC formation in a CRM coupled to a bulk aerosol scheme . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 13 , 12 549 – 12 572 , . 10.5194/acp-13-12549-2013 Bodas-Salcedo , A. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Origins of the solar radiation biases over the Southern Ocean in CFMIP2 models . J. Climate , 27 , 41 – 56 , . 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00169.1 Bretherton , C. S

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Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Bretherton, Christian Schwartz, Edwin Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Shaunna Donaher, Mampi Sarkar, Jeremy McGibbon, Alison D. Nugent, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, Patrick Minnis, Robindra Paliknoda, Louis Lussier, Jorgen Jensen, J. Vivekanandan, Scott Ellis, Peisang Tsai, Robert Rilling, Julie Haggerty, Teresa Campos, Meghan Stell, Michael Reeves, Stuart Beaton, John Allison, Gregory Stossmeister, Samuel Hall, and Sebastian Schmidt

The evolution of the boundary layer aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and thermodynamic structures along trajectories within the North Pacific trade winds was investigated using the NSF–NCAR Gulfstream V. Boundary layer clouds in the form of stratocumulus and small marine cumulus are the most frequently observed cloud types over the Earth’s oceans, are the most abundant types globally ( Norris 1998 ), and have an important impact on the Earth’s radiation budget ( Hartmann and Short 1980 ). The

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M. Christian Schwartz, Virendra P. Ghate, Bruce. A. Albrecht, Paquita Zuidema, Maria P. Cadeddu, Jothiram Vivekanandan, Scott M. Ellis, Pei Tsai, Edwin W. Eloranta, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, and Christopher S. Bretherton

ability to operate in zenith- or nadir-pointing mode (operational settings of the HSRL during CSET are shown in Table 2 ). To avoid specular reflection from the ocean surface, the HSRL was pointing 4° from the fuselage while pointing down. The direction of the HSRL beam tilt was toward the left wing of the GV away from the HCR reflector pod that was mounted on the right wing. The HSRL recorded the calibrated backscatter at 2-Hz temporal and 7.5-m range resolutions. The extinction coefficient can also

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Jothiram Vivekanandan, Virendra P. Ghate, Jorgen B. Jensen, Scott M. Ellis, and M. Christian Schwartz

observations complement each other by representing small and large droplets in a DSD spectrum; in the present study, they are used to retrieve characteristic droplet diameter. Measurements from Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere–Land Study (VOCALS) ( Wood et al. 2011 ) and Cloud Systems Evolution in the Trades (CSET; Albrecht et al. 2019 ) field campaigns were analyzed. Since detailed profiles of liquid droplet spectra were not collected during CSET, liquid droplet

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Kuan-Ting O, Robert Wood, and Christopher S. Bretherton

–coalescence. Measurements of in cumulus and stratocumulus decks over the northeastern Pacific Ocean ( Hudson and Frisbie 1991 ; Hudson 1993 ) have shown there is vertical decrease of , which the authors attributed to coalescence scavenging. Aircraft observations of MBL clouds over the southern Pacific Ocean ( Stephens and Platt 1987 ; Boers and Krummel 1998 ; Boers et al. 1996 ) have demonstrated that generally decreases with increasing altitude while shows the reverse trend, which is consistent with the

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Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Jorgen Jensen, Johannes Mohrmann, and Robert Wood

1. Introduction The transition from overcast stratocumulus to more broken shallow cumulus clouds is a conspicuous feature of all of Earth’s subtropical oceanic basins. The accompanying change in the top-of-the-atmosphere albedo, and the contribution to global hydrologic cycle through evaporation off the ocean’s surface as the boundary layers deepen, has inspired research into the processes underlying the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition (SCT). The original studies established that the

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