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David P. Schneider, Clara Deser, and Tingting Fan

(EOF) of extratropical, lower-tropospheric geopotential height anomalies ( Thompson and Wallace 2000 ). The positive trend in the SAM has been linked with a reduction in the Southern Ocean carbon sink (e.g., Le Quéré et al. 2007 ; Lovenduski et al. 2008 ), shifts in the spatial distribution of precipitation ( Kang et al. 2011 ; Previdi and Polvani 2014 ), and cooling trends in East Antarctic surface climate ( Marshall 2007 ; Nicolas and Bromwich 2014 ). There have also been significant regional

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Xiaofang Feng, Qinghua Ding, Liguang Wu, Charles Jones, Ian Baxter, Robert Tardif, Samantha Stevenson, Julien Emile-Geay, Jonathan Mitchell, Leila M. V. Carvalho, Huijun Wang, and Eric J. Steig

Southern Ocean (SO) and no long-term change in total sea ice extent surrounding the Antarctic ( Marshall et al. 2014 , 2015 ; Armour et al. 2016 ). Understanding the causes of this asymmetry has attracted substantial scientific interest because, from energy balance considerations, CO 2 forcing alone should presumably induce uniform warming everywhere on the globe in a first-order approximation ( Hansen et al. 2010 ). Thus, this bipolar contrast has been attributed to a combined effect of CO 2

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Kate Snow, Andrew McC. Hogg, Bernadette M. Sloyan, and Stephanie M. Downes

thermosteric effects ( Purkey and Johnson 2010 ), while increases in glacial runoff have been shown to enhance sea level rise within the Southern Ocean ( Rye et al. 2014 ; van den Berk and Drijfhout 2014 ). AABW property and volume changes will likely alter the global overturning circulation. Current studies often refer to the role of AABW in the “bipolar seesaw.” Under such a scenario, reduced AABW transport enhances North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) circulation (e.g., England 1993 ; Seidov et al. 2001

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M. Nuncio and Xiaojun Yuan

the eastern tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean during a positive IOD event ( Ashok et al. 2003a ). Influence of the IOD can be detected in Southern Hemispheric storm track activities in southern Australia and New Zealand ( Ashok 2007a ). Out of 21 significant bushfire seasons of Australia, 11 were preceded by positive IOD events ( Cai et al. 2009a ), one of which resulted in the notorious bush fire inferno called “Black Saturday.” The impact of the IOD can be traced to the extratropical and

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Xichen Li, David M. Holland, Edwin P. Gerber, and Changhyun Yoo

. 2012 ). These changes impact on global climate through their contributions to sea level rise ( IPCC 2013 ; Pritchard et al. 2009 ; Shepherd et al. 2012 ) and deep-ocean circulations ( Holland and Kwok 2012 ). The observed West Antarctic climate change is tightly related to Antarctic atmospheric circulation changes ( Lefebvre et al. 2004 ; Lefebvre and Goosse 2005 ; Sigmond and Fyfe 2010 ; Stammerjohn et al. 2008 ; Thompson et al. 2011 ; Schneider et al. 2012 ). The southern annular mode (SAM

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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

, outweighing the thermodynamically induced warming from Arctic sea ice loss. While most of the climate impacts from Arctic sea ice loss are expected to occur at middle and high latitudes, recent work has shown that ocean–atmosphere coupling may extend the reach of these impacts into the tropics and Southern Hemisphere ( D15 ). The dynamical ocean response, in particular, plays a key role in communicating the effects of Arctic sea ice loss to the entire globe via a weakening of the northward oceanic heat

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Aaron B. Wilson, David H. Bromwich, and Keith M. Hines

atmosphere–ocean coupled El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Trenberth 1997 ). During the warm phase of ENSO (El Niño), a weakening/reversal of the tropical trade winds allows anomalous warm water to move toward the central and/or eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, shifting tropical convection eastward and affecting global atmospheric circulation ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; Arkin 1982 ). The ENSO teleconnection to the SH is characterized as a Rossby wave, specifically the Pacific–South American pattern

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Kyle R. Clem and James A. Renwick

western tropical Pacific to ~30°S, 120°W ( Kiladis et al. 1989 ; Vincent 1994 ; Widlansky et al. 2011 ). The SPCZ is known to be modulated by ENSO and the PDO ( Folland et al. 2002 ). Because of the strong and persistent convective activity along the SPCZ, it strongly influences circulation patterns across the southern oceans through the generation of Rossby waves that propagate poleward from this area. Because the SPCZ is modulated by both ENSO and the PDO, the findings of Clem and Fogt (2015

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

). These results refocus attention on the connections from the tropics to the poles. It has been long known that polar climate is strongly influenced by the tropical SST variability related particularly to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, owning to its far-reaching impact on many aspects of the global climate system. The influences of ENSO can be observed in the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and glacial ice in polar regions of both hemispheres ( Turner 2004 ). The atmospheric responses

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Ryan L. Fogt and Alex J. Wovrosh

location of the moisture flux from the Southern Ocean). Similarly, the spatial breadth of the ASL—how large the low pressure anomaly is in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas—is an important factor in determining how variations in the ASL will impact the Antarctic Peninsula climate during austral spring ( Clem and Fogt 2013 ). Several mechanisms give rise to long-term changes in the ASL. Both Turner et al. (2009) and Fogt and Zbacnik (2014) found that ozone depletion has led to a deepening of the

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