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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

heavily affect coastal and continental regions. The causes of such severe events are generally attributed to the geographic complexity of the Mediterranean basin especially at the local scale where the orography plays an important role in the destabilization of the westerly oceanic systems reaching the area. The mountain chains provide the necessary uplift to air parcels to reach the level of free convection, thus contributing to heavy rainfalls over the surrounding areas. The importance of orography

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

increasingly found that the progress of their understanding was encountering barriers at the boundaries between the disciplines. Further progress would require consideration of the larger system and the interactions between the components that were defined early in the century. Often specific phenomena served as the bridge between disciplines. For example, study of El Niño brought the atmosphere and ocean communities together to an unprecedented degree. A similar convergence has been occurring at the land

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

ranging from <0.2 g C kg −1 H 2 O in deserts of northern and southern Africa, the western United States, Australia, and western and central Asia to >1.5 g C kg −1 H 2 O in boreal forests and tundra of North America, Eurasia, and the Tibetan Plateau. Most humid forest ecosystems showed intermediate WUE S (0.6–1.2 g C kg −1 H 2 O). Fig . 3. Global distribution of (a) AET and (b) annual NPP, simulated by the VISIT model for 1995–2004. Fig . 4. Global distribution of (a) WUE C , defined as NPP

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Qing Liu, Rolf H. Reichle, Rajat Bindlish, Michael H. Cosh, Wade T. Crow, Richard de Jeu, Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy, George J. Huffman, and Thomas J. Jackson

through the assimilation of soil moisture observations or related variables (such as microwave brightness temperature; Crow et al. 2006 ; Parajka et al. 2006 ; de Wit and van Diepen 2007 ; Reichle et al. 2007 ; Scipal et al. 2008 ; Drusch et al. 2009 ; Li et al. 2010 ; to name a few). The recently launched Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission ( Kerr et al. 2010 ) and the planned Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission ( Entekhabi et al. 2010a ) are designed to provide soil

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

source represents groundwater, it serves merely as an unlimited source of water and does not explicitly take into account the actual groundwater recharge. Finally, water remaining in the river channels flows downstream to the ocean or inland sinks. The following subsections provide brief descriptions of each module. Fig . 1. Schematic diagram of the integrated modeling framework. Here T , SW, PET, and ET denote air temperature, shortwave radiation, potential evapotranspiration, and

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