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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

. 1999 ; Dunion and Velden 2004 ; Nalli et al. 2005 ; Parker et al. 2005 ; Messager et al. 2010 ; Ismail et al. 2010 ; Braun 2010 ). The SAL resides above a well-mixed marine boundary layer capped by the trade wind inversion at approximately 850 hPa. It generally extends up to 500 hPa near the West African coast, but the base rises and the top descends to the west across the Atlantic Ocean ( Karyampudi and Carlson 1988 ; Parker et al. 2005 ; Braun 2010 ). The air within the SAL is warm and

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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

significant radio frequency interference (RFI) from other AV-6 systems, resulting in loss of data within some dropsonde profiles. The lowest levels were most frequently impacted. The RFI issues were resolved for the 2013 and 2014 campaigns during which the dropsonde data from the aircraft to the ocean surface were typically good. AVAPS also provided good data for the NOAA Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR; Neiman et al. 2014 ) program in 2011. The overstorm payload consisted of the

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Erin B. Munsell, Jason A. Sippel, Scott A. Braun, Yonghui Weng, and Fuqing Zhang

nonradiance observations besides airborne reconnaissance measurements ( Weng and Zhang 2014 ). Three two-way nested domains are used with horizontal grid spacings of 27, 9, and 3 km, which contain areas of 10 200 km × 6600 km (378 × 243 grid points), 2700 km × 2700 km (303 × 303 grid points), and 900 km × 900 km (303 × 303 grid points). The outermost domain is fixed and encompasses the majority of the North Atlantic Ocean and North America. The inner two domains are movable, with the center of the domain

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Alan Brammer, Chris D. Thorncroft, and Jason P. Dunion

; Braun 2010 ; Brammer and Thorncroft 2015 ). In a Lagrangian reference frame a strong horizontal circulation around the AEW trough can potentially provide a protected region of closed circulation with favorable thermodynamics that supports continued convection and intensification ( Dunkerton et al. 2009 ). However, AEWs over West Africa are typically cold core at low levels, developing low-level vorticity as they leave the coast and transition into the oceanic environment off the West Africa coast

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Anthony C. Didlake Jr., Gerald M. Heymsfield, Paul D. Reasor, and Stephen R. Guimond

from the southern segments of the two overpasses in Fig. 10 . Given the limited coverage of HIWRAP’s narrow swath, there still remains uncertainty about Gonzalo’s asymmetry. To further verify this asymmetric kinematic structure, we compare the radar observations to flight-level observations. Although the C-130 flights examined herein were not coincident with the WB-57 flights, we expect that the wavenumber-1 structural changes would occur more slowly than the flight mission frequency, which would

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