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Merhala Thurai, Kumar Vijay Mishra, V. N. Bringi, and Witold F. Krajewski

. Piccioti , 2013 : Performance evaluation of a new dual-polarization microphysical algorithm based on long-term X-band radar and disdrometer observations . J. Hydrometeor. , 14 , 560 – 576 , doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-057.1 . 10.1175/JHM-D-12-057.1 Bertonasco , M. A. A. , R. Notarpietro , M. Gabella , and U. Germann , 2013 : Rainfall estimation improvements using polarization data from Monte Lema C-band weather radar in the southern European Alps. 2013 Int. Conf. on Electromagnetics in Advanced

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Munir A. Nayak, Gabriele Villarini, and A. Allen Bradley

beneficial rains that replenish water resources, and in some cases, help end long-term droughts ( Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Dettinger 2013 ; Ralph et al. 2013 ; Lavers and Villarini 2015a ). Over the central United States, a necessary condition for the occurrence of major heavy rainfall events leading to floods is the presence of moist air advected by the Great Plains LLJ from oceanic sources, including the tropical Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea ( Dirmeyer and Kinter 2009 , 2010

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Kumar Vijay Mishra, Witold F. Krajewski, Radoslaw Goska, Daniel Ceynar, Bong-Chul Seo, Anton Kruger, James J. Niemeier, Miguel B. Galvez, Merhala Thurai, V. N. Bringi, Leonid Tolstoy, Paul A. Kucera, Walter A. Petersen, Jacopo Grazioli, and Andrew L. Pazmany

), operating at a range resolution of 125 m and a beamwidth of 1.3°, have previously been used ( Cremonini et al. 2010 ). During the early 1990s, Fabry et al. (1992) carried out various experiments using a mobile X-band vertically pointing radar (VPR) to obtain high-resolution (20 m) data for stratiform events. Similarly, Purdy et al. (2005) made high-resolution (60 m) hydrological measurements using a mobile X-band VPR during the Southern Alps Experiment (SALPEX) in New Zealand to understand a complex

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Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, and Amir AghaKouchak

), Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), and Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon radar altimeter can be used to estimate flood inundation, water level, and river discharge. Applications of satellite-based surface water measurements can be found in Hossain et al. (2014a , b) , Khan et al. (2014) , Alsdorf et al. (2007) , Bjerklie et al. (2005) , Brakenridge et al. (2007) , Bates et al. (1997) , and Behrangi et

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Bong-Chul Seo, Brenda Dolan, Witold F. Krajewski, Steven A. Rutledge, and Walter Petersen

the southern IFC network by heavier convection. The resulting scatter patterns are completely different, although bias values are in similar range. While radar–gauge agreement for the IFC network area shows some improvement in the CSU-DP estimates, the SP and DP estimates for the NASA network do not show much difference, and the improvement in the CSU-DP is little if any. As discussed earlier, some convective storms passed over the IFC network area at the end of the period (event 1), and we find a

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Di Wu, Christa Peters-Lidard, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Walter Petersen

. (2011) found that high-resolution land surface initialization produces some small improvements for the forecasted precipitation. Tao et al. (2011) have shown that land surface initial conditions only play a secondary role in simulated rainfall from a squall line over the southern Great Plains (SGP), either by varying initial soil moistures or by applying a high-resolution land surface initialization. The impact of surface initialization on precipitation is also location dependent. General

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Young-Hee Ryu, James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Luciana K. Cunha, Elie Bou-Zeid, and Witold Krajewski

–atmosphere interaction: A review based on observational and global modeling perspectives . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 7209 – 7225 , doi: 10.1029/95JD02135 . Bonner, W. D. , 1968 : Climatology of the low level jet . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 96 , 833 – 850 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1968)096<0833:COTLLJ>2.0.CO;2 . Bretherton, C. S. , Peters M. E. , and Back L. E. , 2004 : Relationships between water vapor path and precipitation over the tropical oceans . J. Climate , 17 , 1517 – 1528 , doi: 10

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