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Abby Stevens, Rebecca Willett, Antonios Mamalakis, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Alejandro Tejedor, James T. Randerson, Padhraic Smyth, and Stephen Wright

exhibit high correlation with precipitation over the last four decades ( Mamalakis et al. 2018 ). The latter interhemispheric teleconnection has been suggested to materialize through a western Pacific ocean–atmosphere pathway, whereby SST anomalies in the southwestern Pacific during late boreal summer can modulate time-lagged anomalies of the same sign in the northwestern and central Pacific via perturbation of the regional southern Hadley cell, which in turn affect the jet stream and winter storm

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Clément Guilloteau, Antonios Mamalakis, Lawrence Vulis, Phong V. V. Le, Tryphon T. Georgiou, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

respectively for 10.8% and 8.3% of the variance, appear to be related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal ( Trenberth 1997 ; Wang et al. 2017 ) (3–7-yr cycle) and to anthropogenic climate change (trend) with a strong signal over the tropical Pacific Ocean ( Fig. 11 ). The third and fourth modes seem to resemble the patterns of the North Pacific gyre oscillation ( Di Lorenzo et al. 2008 , 2009 ) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Newman et al. 2016 ). However

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Lisa Milani, Mark S. Kulie, Daniele Casella, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Giulia Panegrossi, Veljko Petkovic, Sarah E. Ringerud, Jean-François Rysman, Paolo Sanò, Nai-Yu Wang, Yalei You, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson

every year, with an average total yearly accumulation of 405 cm (with a mean 24 h accumulation of 28 cm) for Lake Erie and 615 cm (with a mean 24 h accumulation of 47 cm) for Lake Ontario. Spaceborne radar datasets also highlight LES prevalence globally with distinct seasonal cycles and notable shallow convective maxima located over extended high-latitude oceanic regions ( Kulie and Milani 2018 ; Kulie et al. 2016 , 2020 ). The Kulie et al. (2016) and Kulie and Milani (2018) CloudSat studies

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Sarah Ringerud, Christa Peters-Lidard, Joe Munchak, and Yalei You

ocean. Over ocean, the multispectral emission and scattering characteristics of hydrometeors can be used in algorithms for microwave imagers such as the 13-channel GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), whereas over land, retrievals typically reduce to looking for an ice scattering signal associated with precipitation ( Levizzani et al. 2020 ; You et al. 2017 ; Petty and Krajewski 1996 ). Additionally, the passive microwave (PMW) brightness temperatures (Tbs) are sensitive to the column integrated

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Giuseppe Mascaro

and Wallis 1997 ). As a notable example, the regionalization technique proposed by Hosking and Wallis (1997) was adopted in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14 to generate IDF curves for most of the conterminous United States (CONUS; Bonnin et al. 2004 ). The accuracy and uncertainty of IDF analyses are dependent on quality and availability of historical records. In developed countries, rainfall data are in general available; however, data availability is higher

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

domains were expanded from 256 to 512 km, allowing more room for organized systems to grow. In addition, three new cases (two continental and one oceanic) from the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E, conducted in late spring/early summer of 2011 over the southern Great Plains), the Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GOAmazon, conducted in 2014 and 2015 over the Amazon basin), and DYNAMO (conducted from late 2011 to early 2012 over the equatorial Indian Ocean), respectively, were

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

. 2014 ). Fig . 1. Atmospheric profiles with quasi-identical spectral signatures can have very different radar reflectivity profiles and surface rain rates. (a) Two spectral signatures measured by GMI over ocean and (b) corresponding Ku reflectivites measured by the DPR along GMI’s field of view. The profile 1 was observed at latitude −3.29° and longitude 170.89° at 1210 UTC 6 Sep 2016 (orbit 14342 of the GPM Core Observatory ) and has a 15 mm h −1 surface precipitation rate. The profile 2 was

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Phu Nguyen, Mohammed Ombadi, Vesta Afzali Gorooh, Eric J. Shearer, Mojtaba Sadeghi, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, David Bolvin, and Martin F. Ralph

tropical regions of Africa, South America, and Asia. In addition, it underestimates bands of high precipitation in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, northern Pacific Ocean along the coast of western Canada, and over the Southern Hemisphere oceans. This last observation is clearly shown in Fig. 1d , which shows the average zonal annual precipitation. In particular, PERSIANN-CCS (blue line) deviates significantly from IMERGF over the latitudes (−60°, −20°) indicating considerable underestimation. On the

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Allison E. Goodwell

-Atlantic, New England, Ohio, Great Lakes, Upper Mississippi): In summer (red in Fig. 5 ), TE is dominantly from the southwest and MI from the west, following national averages. The majority of extreme precipitation events occur in summer in this region, and most of these are attributable to frontal systems ( Kunkel et al. 2012 ). In winter (blue in Fig. 5 ), θ TEvect has a broader distribution, or more variability in dominant direction. This could indicate winter influence of both continental and ocean

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Chandra Rupa Rajulapati, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Martyn P. Clark, Saman Razavi, Guoqiang Tang, and John W. Pomeroy

variables and monthly bias correction from gridded observations] making use of the ERA-Interim reanalysis data ( Weedon et al. 2014 ). The CPC combines precipitation from several in situ observation sources (from national and international agencies) and uses an optimal interpolation objective analysis technique ( Chen et al. 2008 ). CFSR by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is a coupled atmospheric–ocean–land surface–sea ice reanalysis product ( Saha et al. 2014 ). Details such as

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