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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

the years 1988–2005 is shown in the left panel of Fig. 1 . North Atlantic and Pacific storm-track regions as well as the “roaring forties” and “furious fifties” over the Southern Ocean are characterized by maximum climate mean values of up to 14 m s −1 . Secondary local maxima exist in the tropical trade wind area. Moreover, the characteristic minima of the subtropical calms and the Southeast Asian warm pool region are clearly evident. The zonal mean annual cycle ( Fig. 1 , right) highlights the

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Daniel Vila, Ralph Ferraro, and Hilawe Semunegus

the vertical (V) polarization channels. The 85-GHz V channel for January exhibits a relatively larger variability over land than over ocean ( Fig. 1g ). This fact is related to surface temperature variability over both surface types. The presence of ice and snow tends to depress the 85-GHz V channel, whereas over the Southern Hemisphere summer, the highest values are observed over Australia. For the standard deviation ( Fig. 1h ), the larger variability is observed in those regions with possible

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Tufa Dinku, Franklyn Ruiz, Stephen J. Connor, and Pietro Ceccato

information over the oceans and parts of the world where conventional surface-based observations of rainfall (rain gauges and radars) are very sparse or nonexistent. These products are similar in that most of them combine data from passive microwave (PM) and thermal infrared (TIR) sensors. The main differences among them are the manner in which the individual data inputs are combined. Other differences may include use of rain gauge observations to reduce bias and the spatial and temporal resolution of the

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Cristian Mitrescu, Tristan L’Ecuyer, John Haynes, Steven Miller, and Joseph Turk

gap in this data field is noted. The red line shows the rain rates equivalent to a uniform cloud layer as described by Haynes et al. (2009) , where only PIA information is used to infer a rain rate. Since this approach is only applicable over ocean surfaces, the comparison can only be performed for the first half of the data points (i.e., over ocean). Finally, the along- CloudSat track rain rates as retrieved using the AMSR-E passive microwave (PMW) sensor onboard Aqua are presented with an

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Mark S. Kulie and Ralf Bennartz

; Kim et al. 2008 ). The regions illustrated in Fig. 6 also display a relatively high frequency of snowfall occurrence ( Liu 2008a ), thus providing further motivation for selecting these specific locations. Since the CPR dataset utilized in this study only extends to 75°N–S, “Greenland” is assumed to be all land regions on Greenland located south of 75°N, while the “Greenland ocean” region includes all over-ocean observations near Greenland (bounded by 58°–75°N and 62°–18°W). “Antarctica

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Frank S. Marzano, Domenico Cimini, Tommaso Rossi, Daniele Mortari, Sabatino Di Michele, and Peter Bauer

precipitation rates might occur if global temperature will increase, as is commonly accepted, thus causing a positive feedback loop with a possible increase of weather extremes and durations of flood and drought episodes ( Levitus et al. 2001 ; Ziegler et al. 2003 ). This scenario clearly raises the need for accurate, stable, and continuous space–time sampling of atmospheric precipitation over land and ocean toward a precise estimate of accumulated water (and related phenomena such as moisture transport

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B. J. Sohn, Hyo-Jin Han, and Eun-Kyoung Seo

1800 LT (sunset), respectively. In the AWS, relatively large diurnal variations of rainfall are observed over the southern coastal area, with a peak around 0900 LT, somewhat later than the typical open ocean ( Yang and Smith 2006 ), and much earlier than the convective land type ( Chung et al. 2007 ). In fact, in the middle of the peninsula along 35° and 37°N, rainfall peaks are generally between 0600 and 0900 LT, but with a weak signal. In TMPA, peaks showing diurnal variations generally agree

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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

of one National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-provided satellite, U.S. satellite assets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, and international satellites with passive microwave instruments. Two of the major objectives of the GPM mission are to measure cold-season precipitation in mid- and high latitudes over land through the use of GMI high-frequency radiometry and to further the understanding of precipitation

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Hilawe Semunegus, Wesley Berg, John J. Bates, Kenneth R. Knapp, and Christian Kummerow

(vertically and horizontally polarized). Detailed specifications for the spacecraft and instrument are given by Colton and Poe (1999) and Raytheon (2000) . The SSM/I was replaced by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSM/IS) in November 2005, although SSM/I is still operating. Eventually, the record of passive microwave instruments is planned to continue under the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). SSM/I data are publicly available at National Oceanic

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Tufa Dinku, Pietro Ceccato, Keith Cressman, and Stephen J. Connor

:// ). These maps are based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing technique (CMORPH; Joyce et al. 2004 ) rainfall estimates. There are many satellite rainfall products available over the region of interest. However, the accuracy of satellite rainfall estimates has not been assessed over most of this region. Thus, validation of satellite rainfall products over this region would be an important contribution to FAO DLIS. It would also be an

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