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Valery M. Melnikov, Richard J. Doviak, Dusan S. Zrnić, and David J. Stensrud

the ground to around 500 m above ground level (AGL) and stretches horizontally across the entire cross section from the radar location to 50 km. The 1200 UTC Norman, Oklahoma, sounding captured a strong stable layer from the ground to 950 hPa with weak northerly winds ( Fig. 2a ). This stable layer is associated with a shallow frontal boundary that moved into southern Oklahoma overnight. Above the shallow stable layer is a nearly isothermal layer that extends to 900 hPa. By the time of the 1627

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A. B. White, M. L. Anderson, M. D. Dettinger, F. M. Ralph, A. Hinojosa, D. R. Cayan, R. K. Hartman, D. W. Reynolds, L. E. Johnson, T. L. Schneider, R. Cifelli, Z. Toth, S. I. Gutman, C. W. King, F. Gehrke, P. E. Johnston, C. Walls, D. Mann, D. J. Gottas, and T. Coleman

1. Introduction Since the late 1990s, scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and their partners have been studying the winter storms that impact the U.S. West Coast each year. Beginning in 2004, this work was organized under the umbrella of NOAA’s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT-West; hmt.noaa.gov ; Ralph et al. 2005 ; Morss and Ralph 2007 ). This paper describes a California HMT-Legacy project that has three main

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Rostislav Kouznetsov, Priit Tisler, Timo Palo, and Timo Vihma

flux, despite a large temperature gradient, is weaker than in the previous case and nearly vanishes at 10 m. The momentum fluxes are very small and have opposite signs above and below the flow core. 4. Discussion and conclusions Several general features of the observed katabatic flows can be noticed. First, the direction of the katabatic winds is eastern, whereas the uphill direction is southern. Such behavior can be clearly attributed to the Coriolis force that acts as an equilibration factor

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