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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

coastal cities, where the UHI influences merge with large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. The Southern California air basin (SoCAB) is of particular interest, given reported coastal cooling for the region attributed to GHG-induced warming ( Lebassi et al. 2009 ). To estimate the impacts of urbanization on surface temperatures and daily sea-breeze patterns, a new land-cover classification scheme was derived for the SoCAB using updated airborne remote sensing data from the recent

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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

understanding of the influencing factors for the rainfall variability over the Sahel could improve the predictive skill in rainfall forecasting, which will benefit the local people. Figure 1. The land-use and land-cover types of Africa from the MODIS land-cover dataset in 2001. The Sahel region is outlined in red. Sahel rainfall is known to be strongly influenced by sea surface temperature (SST), both globally and in oceans adjacent to the African continent ( Martin and Thorncroft 2014 ; Mohino et al. 2011

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

three combined land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature datasets (HadCRUT4, GISS, and NCDC Merged Land–Ocean Surface Temperature analysis). Various causes have been ascribed to the midcentury cooling trend including “global dimming” due to aerosols ( Wild et al. 2007 ; Yu et al. 2014 ), volcanic eruptions ( Meehl et al. 2004 ), and solar irradiance ( Crowley 2000 ; Meehl et al. 2004 ). Meehl et al. (2004) employed global climate models to show that an additive effect of all of

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

relationship found between winter NHJ position in the North Atlantic sector and the NAO index ( Table S2 ). Northern and southern NHJ positions correspond to positive and negative NAO phases and are related to the advection (or absence thereof) of relatively warm air from the Atlantic Ocean ( Mahlstein et al. 2012 ). The NHJ–NAO relationship confirms previous findings by Woollings et al. (2014) showing that the winter North Atlantic jet has three preferred latitudinal positions ranging from a southern to

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

atmospheric data using a global inversion of atmospheric transport . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 3 , 1919 – 1964 , doi: 10.5194/acp-3-1919-2003 . Schmid , P. , and D. Niyogi , 2012 : A method for estimating planetary boundary layer heights and its application over the ARM Southern Great Plains site . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 29 , 316 – 322 , doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00118.1 . Schmidt , A. , C. Hanson , J. Kathilankal , and B. E. Law , 2011 : Classification and assessment of turbulent

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

how this influences the extent to which LUC impacts climate. Section 2 gives a description of the HadCM3 climate model and the simulations used in this study. The results are outlined in section 3 followed by an energy balance analysis in section 4 . A discussion and summary is presented in section 5 . 2. Methods HadCM3 is a coupled Earth system model comprising a 3D dynamical atmosphere and ocean components and includes a thermodynamic/free-drift sea ice model ( Gordon et al. 2000 ). The

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

temperatures with electricity load within Tucson and Phoenix to then be able to estimate the effect of future temperatures on electricity load under urban expansion. Near-surface air temperatures collected by the Arizona Meteorological Network (AZMET) were used; AZMET provides meteorological- and weather-based information for agriculture and horticulture in southern and central Arizona. The observation station for Tucson is located at 32°16′N and 110°56′W, very close to the city center. The station for

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