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Gualtiero Badin, Amit Tandon, and Amala Mahadevan

turbulent regimes is controversial, both in the context of the atmosphere and the ocean. In the atmosphere, the exponential growth described by (16) has been observed by balloon experiments launched near the tropopause in the Southern Hemisphere ( Morel and Larcheveque 1974 ; Er-El and Peskin 1981 ). Lacorata et al. (2004) , however, making use of finite-scale Lyapunov exponents, reanalyzed the same dataset to find that the growth followed Richardson’s law (18) . In the ocean, exponential growth

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Callum J. Shakespeare and Leif N. Thomas

increase in density of the water through cabbeling ( McDougall 1987 ). Cabbeling has been invoked to explain the formation of water masses such as North Pacific Intermediate Water ( Talley and Yun 2001 ) and intermediate, deep, and bottom waters in the Southern Ocean ( Foster 1972 ; Klocker and McDougall 2010 ; Urakawa and Hasumi 2012 ; Groeskamp et al. 2016 ). Thomas and Shakespeare (2015) posited that cabbeling could also generate mode waters at fronts because the vertical structure of the cross

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Daniel B. Whitt and Leif N. Thomas

and Southern Ocean frontal zones. Moreover, forced/dissipating inertial oscillations will tend to damp geostrophic flows more strongly in regions of anticyclonic vorticity than cyclonic vorticity, possibly enhancing the cyclone/anticyclone asymmetry observed in strong frontal jets like the Gulf Stream (e.g., Rossby and Zhang 2001 ) or other regions where strong relative vorticity coincides with strong wind work on inertial motions (e.g., Rudnick 2001 ; Shcherbina et al. 2013 ). This energy

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Daniel Mukiibi, Gualtiero Badin, and Nuno Serra

, and J. Sharples , 2010 : Water-mass transformation in the shelf seas . J. Mar. Res. , 68 , 189 – 214 , doi: 10.1357/002224010793721442 . Badin , G. , A. Tandon , and A. Mahadevan , 2011 : Lateral mixing in the pycnocline by baroclinic mixed layer eddies . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 41 , 2080 – 2101 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-11-05.1 . Badin , G. , R. G. Williams , Z. Jing , and L. Wu , 2013 : Water-mass transformations in the Southern Ocean diagnosed from observations

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Angelique C. Haza, Tamay M. Özgökmen, Annalisa Griffa, Andrew C. Poje, and M.-Pascale Lelong

measures have been put forward as one of the most suitable methods to detect rapidly evolving submesoscale flows ( Özgökmen et al. 2011 ; Özgökmen and Fischer 2012 ; Özgökmen et al. 2012 ). Oceanic experiments with an increasing number of drifter pairs over the submesoscale regime have been conducted in the Gulf of Mexico ( Ohlmann et al. 2005 ; LaCasce and Ohlmann 2003 ), the Gulf Stream region ( Lumpkin and Elipot 2010 ), Nordic seas ( Koszalka et al. 2009 ), southern Atlantic ( Berti et al. 2011

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Leif N. Thomas and Callum J. Shakespeare

been invoked to explain the formation of intermediate waters in the North Pacific ( Talley and Yun 2001 ) and deep and bottom waters in the Southern Ocean ( Foster 1972 ; Klocker and McDougall 2010 ). Recent mesoscale-resolving simulations of the Southern Ocean suggest that the process could contribute significantly to the transformation of water masses throughout the water column, including 4 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) of surface/thermocline waters to Subantarctic Mode Water

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