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David H. Bromwich, Julien P. Nicolas, and Andrew J. Monaghan

; Sodemann and Stohl 2009 ). Thus, variations in Antarctic SMB are intimately linked to changes in Southern Ocean precipitation, both of which are examined in this paper. In addition, future climate simulations show that precipitation changes over the Antarctic are paired with those in the adjacent sector of the Southern Ocean (e.g., Christensen et al. 2007 ). Global reanalyses potentially provide valuable resources for investigating climate change during recent decades. These datasets are produced with

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Michael G. Bosilovich, Franklin R. Robertson, and Junye Chen

components is systematic with TOA net decreases over persistently cloudy eastern ocean basins, high-latitude storm tracks, and much of Africa. The changes in the analysis increments of heat are quite variable over continental regions, but they appear to be balanced solely by the vertically integrated heat convergence and release of total potential energy. At the surface energy losses dominate over ocean regions, except in the Southern Ocean where downward heat flux increases with decreased latent heat

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Kyle F. Itterly and Patrick C. Taylor

,OLR and NRMSE MERRA,LWCF do not reach these values. Intermodel differences in NRMSE OLRCLR are small. The largest difference in clear-sky OLR errors between the reanalysis models exists over Central Africa, along the southern Andes, and in certain ocean nonconvective regions. The NRMSE MERRA,OLRCLR is significantly higher than NRMSE ERA,OLRCLR . The NRMSE MERRA,OLR is also slightly higher than NRMSE ERA,OLR over the African Sahel region, over parts of eastern Asia, and over northern Australia. 2

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Sun Wong, Eric J. Fetzer, Brian H. Kahn, Baijun Tian, Bjorn H. Lambrigtsen, and Hengchun Ye

− E in the subtropical oceans is less negative than those of the TRMM–GSSTF and GPCP–GSSTF. The smaller E in MERRA over the storm tracks in both hemispheres also yields larger P − E compared to TRMM–GSSTF and GPCP–GSSTF over mid- to high latitudes in the winter hemisphere (DJF for the Northern Hemisphere and JJA for the Southern Hemisphere). Fig . 3. Geographical distributions of precipitation minus evaporation ( P − E , mm day −1 ) of (a),(d) TRMM 3B42 P − GSSTF2b E ; (b),(e) GPCP P

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Franklin R. Robertson, Michael G. Bosilovich, Junye Chen, and Timothy L. Miller

prominent at tropical latitudes and also over the southern oceans. Also apparent is the effect of the SSM/I sensors, whose data begin in late 1987 and tend to decrease the drying from other observations in the subtropics but dry the high latitudes, particularly in the SH. The increasing amplitude of the apparent SSM/I-induced changes over the Southern Ocean likely results from the increasing number of those sensors deployed with time during the 1990s. Presumably, the SSM/I and AMSU-A effects in the NH

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J. Brent Roberts, Franklin R. Robertson, Carol A. Clayson, and Michael G. Bosilovich

by about 1 m s −1 over the lower latitudes but have peak values 3 m s −1 higher in the storm-track regions, particularly over the Southern Ocean. The near-surface temperature gradients in MERRA are usually within 0.5°C of the observational mean estimate over the tropical and subtropical oceans. Larger regional differences occur in localized regions such as off the western coast of South America (MERRA higher by 1.2°C) where cloud-topped boundary layer are common. Fig . 3. The annual climatology

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Tiffany A. Shaw, Judith Perlwitz, Nili Harnik, Paul A. Newman, and Steven Pawson

Harnik 2004 ). Shaw et al. (2010) showed that in the Southern Hemisphere downward wave coupling is the most important source of downward dynamical coupling between the stratosphere and troposphere on the intraseasonal time scale from September to December. The results were in agreement with Black and McDaniel (2007) who showed that the austral stratospheric final warming event involved significant zonally asymmetric circulation changes in the troposphere. Shaw et al. (2010) showed that downward

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Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Xubin Zeng, Michael Bosilovich, and Chung-Lin Shie

radiation. The ocean albedo was also reduced from 0.15 in NCEP–NCAR to 0.06–0.07 in NCEP–DOE, while desert albedo was increased in NCEP–DOE. Similar data were ingested into NCEP–DOE, except that sea ice and SST were prescribed from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP-II) analysis and a new ozone climatology ( Rosenfield et al. 1987 ) was used. Also, a geolocation error was fixed in the Southern Hemisphere surface pressure analysis ( Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ). CFSR is the latest generation

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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, and Siegfried D. Schubert

the possibility that AEW tracks could cluster around different families of trajectories. Among these, Carlson (1969) was perhaps the first to locate, based upon 33 observed waves, a hint of two activity maxima, coincident with two vortices, one at higher elevation (10 000 ft) located at about 12°N and one at lower elevation (2000 ft) at about 20°N, with the former displaying a westward propagation tendency toward the Atlantic Ocean and the latter appearing to vanish along the coastline. Carlson

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Michele M. Rienecker, Max J. Suarez, Ronald Gelaro, Ricardo Todling, Julio Bacmeister, Emily Liu, Michael G. Bosilovich, Siegfried D. Schubert, Lawrence Takacs, Gi-Kong Kim, Stephen Bloom, Junye Chen, Douglas Collins, Austin Conaty, Arlindo da Silva, Wei Gu, Joanna Joiner, Randal D. Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Andrea Molod, Tommy Owens, Steven Pawson, Philip Pegion, Christopher R. Redder, Rolf Reichle, Franklin R. Robertson, Albert G. Ruddick, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Jack Woollen

1. Introduction Reanalyses combine model fields with observations distributed irregularly in space and time into a spatially complete gridded meteorological dataset, with an unchanging model and analysis system spanning the historical data record. The earlier generations of reanalyses from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NOAA/NCEP), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and the Japan Meteorological

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