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Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Mohammad Mirzaei, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

Northern Hemisphere for which the biases were mainly reduced by implementation of mountain drag schemes, the parameterizations for the convectively generated IGWs proved specifically important in the Southern Hemisphere ( Chun et al. 2001 ) which is mainly covered by oceans. In this regard, Bossuet et al. (1998) implemented a simple scheme which relates the gravity wave momentum fluxes to the precipitation flux as an index of convective activity in the model. Following Lindzen (1981) , they applied

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

“hotspot” region of New Zealand ( Fig.1 , top) during austral winter, when strong vortex edge westerlies provide a stable environment for deep GW propagation into the MLT. T able 1. Science goals. F ig . 1. (top) DEEPWAVE region of airborne and ground-based measurements over New Zealand, Tasmania, the Tasman Sea, and the Southern Ocean. Colors show the GW hotspots in AIRS rms temperature for Jun–Jul 2003–11 at 2.5 hPa. (bottom) Ground-based instruments contributing to DEEPWAVE in New Zealand and

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

investigate the different sources of gravity waves under favorable atmospheric conditions for deep vertical propagation, a climatological local maximum in gravity wave (GW) activity (a so-called hotspot) was sought in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) during austral winter. Besides the southern Andes, the Antarctic Peninsula, Tasmania, and other small islands in the Southern Ocean, the South Island (SI) of New Zealand constitutes one of several hotspots of stratospheric gravity wave activity in the Southern

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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

to convective GW sources ( McLandress et al. 2000 ; Preusse et al. 2001 ; Hoffmann and Alexander 2010 ; Choi et al. 2012 ), while the peak at middle to high southern latitudes has been attributed to orography ( Eckermann and Preusse 1999 ; McLandress et al. 2000 ) and enhanced GW activity in the polar vortex ( Sato and Yoshiki 2008 ; Fritts et al. 2016 ). Fig . 2. (a) August-mean zonal-mean absolute GWMF at 30 km for all simulations and observed by HIRDLS and SABER. Simulated GWMF is

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

modelling of mountain waves over the Southern Alps of New Zealand . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 126 , 2765 – 2788 , . 10.1002/qj.49712656909 Liu , Y. , X. San Liang , and R. H. Weisberg , 2007 : Rectification of the bias in the wavelet power spectrum . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 24 , 2093 – 2102 , . 10.1175/2007JTECHO511.1 Lott , F. , and H. Teitelbaum , 1993a : Linear unsteady mountain waves

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Jannik Wilhelm, T. R. Akylas, Gergely Bölöni, Junhong Wei, Bruno Ribstein, Rupert Klein, and Ulrich Achatz

.1002/qj.49711247406 Plougonven , R. , and F. Zhang , 2014 : Internal gravity waves from atmospheric jets and fronts . Rev. Geophys. , 52 , 33 – 76 , . 10.1002/2012RG000419 Plougonven , R. , A. de la Camara , V. Jewtoukoff , A. Hertzog , and F. Lott , 2017 : On the relation between gravity waves and wind speed in the lower stratosphere over the Southern Ocean . J. Atmos. Sci. , 74 , 1075 – 1093 ,

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Mahnoosh Haghighatnasab, Mohammad Mirzaei, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

developments in gravity-wave effects in climate models and the global distribution of gravity-wave momentum flux from observations and models . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 136 , 1103 – 1124 , . 10.1002/qj.637 Aspden , J. , and J. Vanneste , 2010 : Inertia–gravity-wave generation: a geometric-optics approach. Symp. on Turbulence in the Atmosphere and Oceans , Cambridge, United Kingdom, International Union for Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 17–26 . 10

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

nonorographic gravity waves over the Southern Ocean emphasize the role of moisture . J. Geophys. Res. , 120 , 1278 – 1299 , doi: 10.1002/2014JD022332 . Preusse , P. , and Coauthors , 2009 : New perspectives on gravity wave remote sensing by spaceborne infrared limb imaging . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 2 , 299 – 311 , doi: 10.5194/amt-2-299-2009 . Rapp , M. , B. Strelnikov , A. Müllemann , F.-J. Lübken , and D. Fritts , 2004 : Turbulence measurements and implications for gravity wave

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