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Paquita Zuidema, Chris Fairall, Leslie M. Hartten, Jeffrey E. Hare, and Daniel Wolfe

absorption. Two findings of this study are unusual. One is the impact of the 13 July surge upon the sea surface temperature and oceanic mixed layer temperature: an increase in both of over 1°C, equivalent to a heat input of about 215 W m −2 spanning 2.5 days. Given that the net surface heat flux approached zero during 13–14 July, the temperature increases can only be explained by horizontal oceanic advection. Horizontal oceanic heat transport is known to be important to the southern GoC heat balance

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Chunmei Zhu, Tereza Cavazos, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

oceanic regions, is a major component of North American continental warm season precipitation regimes ( Webster 1987 ). Monsoon rainfall usually starts in June or July, and lasts several months until mid-September. Some 40%–80% of the annual precipitation in the SW and NW Mexico falls during the monsoon period ( Douglas et al. 1993 ; Stensrud et al. 1997 ). Compared to its Asian monsoon sister, NAMS is less impressive partly because of the much smaller area that is affected ( Tang and Reiter 1984

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Katrina Grantz, Balaji Rajagopalan, Martyn Clark, and Edith Zagona

very important for local communities. The NAMS is established when the winds shift from a generally westerly direction in winter to southerly flow in summer. These southerly winds bring moist air from the Gulf of California, the eastern Pacific Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico northward to the land during the summer months ( Adams and Comrie 1997 ). This shift in the winds is brought about by the landmass heating up in summer, thus increasing the land–ocean temperature gradient and bringing the winds

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Wayne Higgins and David Gochis

relationship to regional climate anomalies are needed. Additional understanding of the coupling mechanisms between the ocean and atmosphere is also required. This uncertainty is impeding our understanding of the relative roles of the leading patterns of climate variability [e.g., El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on interannual time scales and the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) on intraseasonal time scales] in modulating monsoon precipitation. To improve predictions on these time scales, emphasis must

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Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, David B. Enfield, and Chidong Zhang

the Atlantic Ocean (eastern), North America (northern), Central America and the Pacific Ocean (western), and South America (southern). The moisture flux through each of these boundary segments is calculated using (1) . The fluxes through the IAS’s northern and western boundary segments are, respectively, referred to as “to north” and “to west.” The fluxes through the IAS’s eastern and southern boundary segments are multiplied times −1 to represent incoming fluxes and are, respectively referred to

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Brian D. McNoldy, Peter J. Rogers, and Richard K. Taft

1. Introduction From June through September 2004 the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) was conducted over northwestern Mexico and the southwestern United States to investigate the mean structure and variability of the North American summer monsoon. A key element of the NAME observing system was a network of operational and supplemental soundings stretching from central Mexico to the southern United States ( Fig. 1 ). This sounding network, in combination with an array of other observing

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X. Gao, J. Li, and S. Sorooshian

significantly improved the description and understanding of the NAM system. This includes identifying and clarifying spatially and temporally coherent relationships among the interactive physical variables of the ocean, atmosphere, and land surface. Among the most important diagnoses are the following: the NAM system’s synoptic- dynamic, and thermodynamic, mechanisms; including its circulation characteristics and their spatial and temporal variations ( Douglas et al. 1993 ; Adams and Comrie 1997 ; Barlow

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Kingtse C. Mo, Eric Rogers, Wesley Ebisuzaki, R. Wayne Higgins, J. Woollen, and M. L. Carrera

fluxes from the Gulf of Mexico to northern Mexico ( Figs. 19a and 19d ) as discussed above. However, the impact of the soundings on a given analysis is smaller than the difference between EDAS and RCDAS ( Figs. 19c and 19f ). The largest differences between the two regional analyses are located over the southern United States and adjacent oceanic areas. The differences over the interior of the United States are relatively small. In addition to the resolution and physics, one important difference

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J. Craig Collier and Guang J. Zhang

1. Introduction During the twentieth century, the North American monsoon system became recognized as a significant climate regime in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Among the earliest written reports of a monsoonlike climate in this region are those of Campbell (1906) and Blake (1923) , who document the existence of “Sonora storms” that prevail over the mountains and deserts of southern California from July into early October. As early as there have been

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Myong-In Lee, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, Isaac M. Held, Arun Kumar, Thomas L. Bell, Jae-Kyung E. Schemm, Ngar-Cheung Lau, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, Hyun-Kyung Kim, and Soo-Hyun Yoo

Mitchell 1994 ; Carbone et al. 2002 ); and 3) large-scale or subcontinental controls such as the nocturnal low-level jet ( Rasmusson 1967 ; Helfand and Schubert 1995 ; Higgins et al. 1997 ; Schubert et al. 1998 ), atmospheric tides ( Dai and Deser 1999 ; Dai et al. 1999 ; Lim and Suh 2000 ), thermally driven large-scale land–ocean circulation and regional subsidence ( Silva Dias et al. 1987 ; Figueroa et al. 1995 ; Gandu and Silva Dias 1998 ; Dai and Deser 1999 ; Dai 2001 ), and the seasonal

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