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Brian J. Carroll, Belay B. Demoz, David D. Turner, and Ruben Delgado

without nearby surface boundaries over the central and Southern Great Plains during the warm season . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 146 , 3053 – 3078 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-18-0040.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-18-0040.1 Schäfler , A. , A. Dörnbrack , C. Kiemle , S. Rahm , and M. Wirth , 2010 : Tropospheric water vapor transport as determined from airborne lidar measurements . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 27 , 2017 – 2030 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JTECHA1418.1 . 10.1175/2010JTECHA1418

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Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

2019 ). There is a lack of studies examining impacts on severe convective storms that produce large hail, tornadoes, and damaging winds, which cause as much annual property damage and more deaths than hurricanes in the United States based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Storm Prediction Center (2012) . Hail produces roughly 60% of the annual average losses in the United States, compared to 20% for both damaging wind and tornadoes ( Gunturi and Tippett 2017

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Thomas R. Parish

results from model simulations (e.g., Zhong et al. 1996 ) show that the summertime LLJ is centered geographically over the southern Great Plains from Texas northward to Nebraska with a maximum over northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas. Two paradigms continue to be espoused in describing the forcing of the LLJ (e.g., Jiang et al. 2007 ; Du and Rotunno 2014 ). The first theory, proposed by Blackadar (1957) , considered the LLJ to be supergeostrophic, the result of an inertial oscillation of the

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Thomas R. Parish

the Great Plains ( Wexler 1961 ; Holton 1967 ; Lettau 1967 ; Bonner 1968 ). Analyses of 47 rawinsonde records for a 2-yr period by Bonner (1968) show the highest summertime LLJ frequency to be centered over northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas. Wexler (1961) proposes that the mountains of Central America deflect trade wind currents northward, thereby intensifying the southerly flow along the sloping Great Plains similar to western oceanic boundary currents. According to the paper, the

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Manda B. Chasteen, Steven E. Koch, and David B. Parsons

throughout the night. Moreover, this study found that insolation did not significantly impact the strength of the convection until the system had become surface based, which led to the dominance of the cold pool. Hane et al. (2008) conducted a 5-yr climatology of morning MCSs over the southern Great Plains and found that 28% remained steady or strengthened during the late morning and persisted into the afternoon. Despite this, the environmental factors responsible for such daytime persistence are

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W. G. Blumberg, T. J. Wagner, D. D. Turner, and J. Correia Jr.

the mid-1990s using a retrieval algorithm called AERIprof ( Smith et al. 1999 ; Feltz et al. 1998 ). AERIprof has several limitations: 1) the carbon dioxide concentration was fixed and not easily changed, 2) the fast radiative transfer model used within AERIprof was tuned for Southern Great Plains (SGP) conditions and hence had significant errors when used in the tropics or Arctic, 3) uncertainty estimates are not provided by this algorithm, and 4) the algorithm was very sensitive to its first

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Alan Shapiro, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Joshua G. Gebauer

: A method for estimating planetary boundary layer heights and its application over the ARM Southern Great Plains site . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 29 , 316 – 322 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00118.1 . 10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00118.1 Segal , M. , and R. W. Arritt , 1992 : Nonclassical mesoscale circulations caused by surface sensible heat-flux gradients . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 73 , 1593 – 1604 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1992)073<1593:NMCCBS>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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David B. Parsons, Kevin R. Haghi, Kelton T. Halbert, Blake Elmer, and Junhong Wang

1. Introduction Haghi et al. (2017) recently showed that as the night progresses in the warm season over the Southern Great Plains, the interaction between convectively generated cold pools and the lower troposphere typically lies within a partially blocked flow regime, where bores will be generated. This study seeks to investigate the potential role of these bores in the initiation and maintenance of nocturnal convection. While high-resolution convection-permitting models show some promise

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Thomas R. Parish and Richard D. Clark

that the North American Cordillera acts as a barrier to the broad trade wind current associated with the Bermuda high. In this view, air is blocked by the topography and then becomes deflected northward. Westerly intensification of the wind east of the Rocky Mountains is compared to processes responsible for strong western oceanic boundary currents such as the Gulf Stream. While this theory has received some recent support (e.g., Ting and Wang 2006 ), Holton (1967) originally dismissed this idea

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David M. Loveless, Timothy J. Wagner, David D. Turner, Steven A. Ackerman, and Wayne F. Feltz

gravity waves in the initiation and maintenance of nocturnal convection over the Southern Great Plains . J. Atmos. Sci. , 76 , 43 – 68 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-17-0172.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0172.1 Pearson , G. , F. Davies , and C. Collier , 2009 : An analysis of the performance of the EFAM pulsed Doppler lidar for observing the boundary layer . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 26 , 240 – 250 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JTECHA1128.1 . 10.1175/2008JTECHA1128.1 Rottman , J. W. , and

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