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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

during the RELAMPAGO Intensive Observational Period (IOP) 4 to sample this convective storm. This is (believed to be) the first set of supercell data collected by a network of multiple Doppler radars and integrated surface instrumentation in South America, and is one of perhaps two such datasets collected in the Southern Hemisphere ( Krupar et al. 2017 ; also Soderholm et al. 2016 ). A summary of storms and strategies during the other RELAMPAGO IOPs will be provided in a project-overview article in

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, and John M. Peters

approximately calm and did not contain any upslope component. To remain consistent with a large portion of the established severe convective storms literature, all simulations were based around a Northern Hemisphere–centric framework, i.e., a “right-moving” supercell (main focus of paper) was one that deviated to the right of the mean wind shear vector and rotated cyclonically (to avoid any confusion with the aforementioned Southern Hemisphere references). Fig . 3. Colorado State University C-band radar

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

occurrence of extreme events and associated severe weather impacts have been related to large-scale climate variability ( Cook and Schaefer 2008 ; Tippett et al. 2015 ; Rasmussen et al. 2014 ; Cook et al. 2017 ) with one notable example of large-scale variability being El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO is an interannual fluctuation of tropical Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures and the surface pressure difference between Darwin and Tahiti ( Trenberth 1997 ) that is known to affect the

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

–2016) are calculated. The terms of the thermodynamic and water vapor conservation equations are computed individually for each event and time before being averaged over the sample. Figures 8 and 9 show the composite mean and anomalies for different variables at the dryline detection time (1800 UTC). The strong moisture gradient associated with drylines extends southeastwards from the foothills of the Andes in southern Mendoza, reaching the shores of the Atlantic Ocean ( Fig. 8a ), coinciding with the

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Matthew R. Kumjian, Rachel Gutierrez, Joshua S. Soderholm, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paula Maldonado, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Kevin A. Bowley, Milagros Alvarez Imaz, and Paola Salio

region. This includes a hailstone estimated photogrammetrically to be very close to or exceeding the Vivian hailstone world record for maximum dimension. The storm occurred in Villa Carlos Paz, in the Córdoba Province of Argentina ( Fig. 1 ), making it the first well-documented case of gargantuan hail outside the U.S. Great Plains, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. This region is known to be prone to hail (e.g., Torre et al. 2011 ; Mezher et al. 2012 ; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ; Bruick

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Daniel J. Cecil

geographical references). This southern region of hail activity may be a result of graupel being counted as hail in this colder region of the continent, because the hail frequency in this region is relatively higher in winter and spring than in other regions of Argentina. Mezher et al. (2012) also found that hailstorms tend to occur when there are warm temperature anomalies near the surface and cold anomalies in the upper atmosphere, leading to the creation of an unstable atmosphere. While this study

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