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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Masaki Katsumata, Shuichi Mori, Sinsuke Satoh, Yuki Hirose, and Hiroaki Ueda

ITCZ in the tropics, and the subtropical convergence zones (STCZs; Kodama 1992 , 1993 ; Ninomiya 1984 , 2007 , 2008 ) in summer; that is, the subtropical portions of the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) and the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) over the Southern Hemisphere (SH) oceans in January and the baiu frontal zone (BFZ) over the western North Pacific in July, and the midlatitude storm tracks in the both hemispheres throughout the year. In these zones, the contribution of

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Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Nagio Hirota

1. Introduction Over the tropical and subtropical oceans, destabilization of the atmosphere by warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and the stabilization by subsidence and horizontal transport may be compared. As a result, although a large precipitation amount is observed with very high SSTs, it does not significantly correlate with SST over moderately warm sea surfaces. Various studies indicate that SST works as a threshold for the precipitation activity (e.g., Gadgil et al. 1984 ). In the

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

, TOGA COARE, and GATE can be found in Tao et al. (2004) . The TOGA COARE surface flux algorithm ( Wang et al. 1996 ) is used to calculate sea surface fluxes for these oceanic cases. 2) Continental cases (ARM 1997 and 2002) The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program established the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site to observe clouds and precipitation for climate research. The site is centered at 36.6°N, 96.5°W. Two summer field campaigns were conducted at the site in 1997 and 2002 and are

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

entire tropical band between 37°S and 37°N at 19 vertical levels from the surface to a height of 18 km with a 0.5° × 0.5° horizontal resolution at daily and monthly resolution. Base LUT profiles representing the vertical heating structure of convective, stratiform, and shallow precipitating systems over land and ocean were used to derive the CSH data in this study. CSH data using these base LUT profiles have been directly compared to observed heating estimates (S. Lang 2008, personal communication

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

has remained elusive. Over the open ocean, an early-morning maximum of precipitation has generally been observed. This behavior has been attributed to a variety of processes acting singly or in combination: horizontal gradients in radiative cooling between cloud systems and their environment ( Gray and Jacobson 1977 ), daytime stabilization of the upper troposphere by shortwave heating and destabilization at night by longwave cooling ( Kraus 1963 ; Randall et al. 1991 ), and the life cycle

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

the HERB algorithm are described in section 2 , including its extension to cover both land and ocean surfaces, the introduction of a time-resolved aerosol transport model, and superior cloud detection and retrieval algorithms. HERB products are evaluated in section 3 in the context of TOA flux measurements from the CERES and ground-based flux observations from a network of surface sites throughout the TRMM region. The 10-yr average climatologies of radiative fluxes and atmospheric properties

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K-M. Lau and H-T. Wu

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1972 ) is a dominant feature in the tropical ocean–atmosphere, linking weather and climate variability. Theories and observational characteristics of MJO and its influence on tropical cyclones, midlatitude weather, monsoon variability, air–sea interaction, relationships with atmospheric angular momentum and El Niño, and predictability have been reported in a large number of previous studies. [See Lau and Waliser (2005) for

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Samson Hagos, Chidong Zhang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Steve Lang, Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Masaki Katsumata, Bill Olson, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment’s Northern and Southern Enhanced Arrays (SCSMEX-N and SCSMEX-S), the Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), and the Mirai Indian Ocean Cruise for the Study of the MJO-Convection Onset (MISMO). The locations and durations, as well as references of these field campaigns, are listed in Table 1 . In calculating Q 1 , vertical velocity is first derived from the horizontal wind and pressure by

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Shaocheng Xie, Timothy Hume, Christian Jakob, Stephen A. Klein, Renata B. McCoy, and Minghua Zhang

and more heating in the mid- and upper levels but weaker upward motion and less heating in the lower troposphere throughout their life cycles compared to those systems observed in Atlantic Ocean during the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE). Keenan and Carbone (1992) showed differences in the structural characteristics of tropical precipitating systems of oceanic, continental/coastal, and island origin observed in the vicinity of Darwin. Tropical

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

in the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE; Webster and Lukas 1992 ). For convective and shallow stratiform regions, the LUT is based on the PTH. Considering the sensitivity of the PR, we used a threshold of 0.3 mm h −1 to determine the PTH. Properties (i.e., shape and magnitude) of the convective and shallow stratiform heating profiles show near-monotonic change with the PTH, suggesting that the distribution of latent heating is a

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