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Wai Kwok Wong, Stein Beldring, Torill Engen-Skaugen, Ingjerd Haddeland, and Hege Hisdal

situations occurred in 2006, 2002/03, and 1995/96. Trend studies indicate that summer droughts in southern Norway have become more severe ( Wilson et al. 2010 ), and according to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report ( Solomon et al. 2007 ), most atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) project an increased dryness of summer soil moisture across large areas of the northern middle and high latitudes. Summer and winter droughts can be distinguished

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Richard Harding, Martin Best, Eleanor Blyth, Stefan Hagemann, Pavel Kabat, Lena M. Tallaksen, Tanya Warnaars, David Wiberg, Graham P. Weedon, Henny van Lanen, Fulco Ludwig, and Ingjerd Haddeland

1. Introduction: Drivers of environmental change The global water cycle is an integral part of the Earth system. It plays a central role in our climate, controlling the global energy cycle as well as carbon, nutrient, and sediment cycles. Increasing temperature, associated with increasing CO 2 concentrations, will increase ocean evaporation, leading to increased atmospheric humidity, modest increases in rainfall, and larger increases in heavy rainfall ( Held and Soden 2006 ; Bates et al. 2008

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Pete Falloon, Richard Betts, Andrew Wiltshire, Rutger Dankers, Camilla Mathison, Doug McNeall, Paul Bates, and Mark Trigg

cycle in HadGEM1 is stronger than that in HadCM3, with global mean precipitation being ~0.15 mm day −1 higher in HadGEM1. Compared to observations, HadGEM1 has too much annual precipitation over the Southern Ocean and high latitudes of the North Atlantic and North Pacific; over land, HadGEM1 is too wet over India and too dry over Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and the coast of western South America. These errors are broadly similar to HadCM3, although over land HadCM3 is too wet over Amazonia, too dry

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Jens H. Christensen, Fahad Saeed, Pankaj Kumar, Shakeel Asharaf, Bodo Ahrens, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Daniela Jacob, and Stefan Hagemann

. (2009) showed that the implementation of an irrigation scheme reduces the warm bias of the Max Planck Institute Regional Model (REMO) for the north of India and improves the precipitation distribution. Recently, Dobler and Ahrens (2010) performed RCM simulations with the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMO) Climate Local Model (CLM) RCM over South Asia, using the ECHAM5–Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (MPIOM) GCM and the 45-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re

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Manuel Punzet, Frank Voß, Anja Voß, Ellen Kynast, and Ilona Bärlund

was set as the start of the falling limb, whereas the minimum of monthly mean air temperatures was used to set the start of the rising limb. To take the shift of seasons of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres into account, the rising and falling limb for each hemisphere was determined separately. Then the temperature data were combined for each hemisphere respectively to calculate a single, global hysteresis regression equation. Highest maximum temperatures for the Northern Hemisphere were

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Kerstin Stahl, Lena M. Tallaksen, Lukas Gudmundsson, and Jens H. Christensen

tuning in hydrological models (e.g., Hunger and Döll 2008 ), as perturbed physics experiments that aim to isolate the cause of a specific climate change signal (e.g., Gedney et al. 2006 ) or as part of a model intercomparison experiment (e.g., Haddeland et al. 2011 ). The models are commonly evaluated against long-term annual or monthly mean values of discharge in large rivers, which is important in terms of future changes in water resources and freshwater input to the oceans. Changes in the

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Lukas Gudmundsson, Lena M. Tallaksen, Kerstin Stahl, Douglas B. Clark, Egon Dumont, Stefan Hagemann, Nathalie Bertrand, Dieter Gerten, Jens Heinke, Naota Hanasaki, Frank Voss, and Sujan Koirala

. Res. Lett. , 37 , L16704 , doi:10.1029/2010GL043877 . Manabe, S. , 1969 : Climate and the ocean circulation. I. The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the earth’s surface . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 97 , 739 – 774 . Martinez, G. F. , and Gupta H. V. , 2010 : Toward improved identification of hydrological models: A diagnostic evaluation of the “abcd” monthly water balance model for the conterminous United States . Water Resour. Res. , 46 , W08507 , doi:10.1029/2009WR008294

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