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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

occurs after the decay phase due to the strengthened off-equatorial anticyclonic circulation ( Zhang et al. 2013 ). In the southeast Indian Ocean, interannual variability of the mixed layer salinity is influenced by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle through modulation in both advection and local precipitation ( Zhang et al. 2016 ). Salinity anomalies due to ENSO-related precipitation change within the Indonesian seas are found to propagate along the major ITF pathway and cause interannual

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Lei Zhou, Ruomei Ruan, and Raghu Murtugudde

Abstract

Madden-Julian Oscillations (MJOs) are a major component of tropical intraseasonal variabilities. There are two paths for MJOs across the Maritime Continent; one is a detoured route into the Southern Hemisphere and the other one is around the equator across the Maritime Continent. Here, it is shown that the detoured and non-detoured MJOs have significantly different impacts on the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ). The detoured MJOs trigger strong cross-equatorial meridional winds from the Northern Hemisphere into the Southern Hemisphere. The associated meridional moisture and energy transports due to the background states carried by the intraseasonal meridional winds are favorable for reinforcing the SPCZ. In contrast, the influences of non-detoured MJOs on either hemisphere or the meridional transports across the equator are much weaker. The detoured MJOs can extend their impacts to the surrounding regions by shedding Rossby waves. Due to different background vorticity during detoured MJOs in boreal winter, more ray paths of Rossby waves traverse the Maritime Continent connecting the southern Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean, but far fewer Rossby wave paths traverse Australia. Further studies on such processes are expected to contribute to a better understanding of extreme climate and natural disasters on the rim of the southern Pacific and Indian Oceans.

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Marvin Xiang Ce Seow, Yushi Morioka, and Tomoki Tozuka

Abstract

Influences from the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans, and atmospheric internal variability on the South China Sea (SCS) atmospheric circulation and cold tongue (CT) variability in boreal winter and the relative roles of remote forcings at interannual time scales are studied using observational data, reanalysis products, and coupled model experiments. In the observation, strong CT years are accompanied by local cyclonic wind anomalies, which are an equatorial Rossby wave response to enhanced convection over the warmer-than-normal western equatorial Pacific associated with La Niña. Also, the cyclonic wind anomalies are an atmospheric Kelvin wave response to diabatic cooling anomalies linked to both the decaying late fall negative Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and winter atmospheric internal variability. Partially coupled experiments reveal that both the tropical Pacific air-sea coupling and atmospheric internal variability positively contribute to the coupled variability of the SCS CT, while the air-sea coupling over the tropical Indian Ocean weakens such variabilities. The northwest Pacific anticyclonic wind anomalies that usually precede El Niño–Southern Oscillation-independent negative IOD generated under the tropical Indian Ocean air-sea coupling undermine such variabilities.

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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

deep mooring observations in the western Pacific Ocean . J. Oceanogr. , 70 , 463 – 488 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-014-0247-3 . 10.1007/s10872-014-0247-3 Johnson , G. C. , 2011 : Deep signatures of southern tropical Indian Ocean annual Rossby waves . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 41 , 1958 – 1964 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-11-029.1 . 10.1175/JPO-D-11-029.1 Johnson , G. C. , B. M. Sloyan , W. S. Kessler , and K. E. McTaggart , 2002 : Direct measurements of upper ocean

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Jieshun Zhu, Arun Kumar, and Wanqiu Wang

, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<1917:AARMMI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<1917:AARMMI>2.0.CO;2 Williams , K. D. , and Coauthors , 2013 : The Transpose-AMIP II experiment and its application to the understanding of Southern Ocean cloud biases in climate models . J. Climate , 26 , 3258 – 3274 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00429.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00429.1 Xie , S. , H.-Y. Ma , J. S. Boyle , S. A. Klein , and Y. Zhang , 2012 : On the correspondence

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

Trenberth et al. (2019) , a preliminary exploration of MHT relationships with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) revealed some new relationships, but these are likely better understood if we consider the MHT in the Pacific and Indian Oceans separately, which is a key purpose of this paper. Hence, in this paper, we explicitly take the ITF into account and therefore separate the MHT from the two oceans. This is nontrivial, because there is a net volume flow from the Pacific westward and southward into

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

active over most of the coastal ocean. DC amplitude is strong especially the northwest coast of Borneo, as well as on the islands over southwestern Borneo and southern Sumatra. Over the suppressed EMC there was a strong anomalous anticyclonic circulation of WP/northwestern New Guinea. DC was only active over the New Guinea Island and the nearshore coastal ocean, as well as a limited area over WP around 140°E. The distribution of the DC amplitude generally reflected the composite total value in both

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Xingwen Jiang, Jianchuan Shu, Xin Wang, Xiaomei Huang, and Qing Wu

anomalous anticyclones over the western North Pacific and the northern Bay of Bengal and a cyclone over the tropical Indian Ocean. The features of anomalous rainfall and wind patterns related to the suppressed convection over the PS and the enhanced convection over the WMC are similar to those related to PC1 and PC2, respectively, but the decreases in rainfall related to PC2 over southern SWC are not significant and the magnitude of anomalous rainfall associated with the convection anomalies is weaker

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See Yee Lim, Charline Marzin, Prince Xavier, Chih-Pei Chang, and Bertrand Timbal

presence of the Borneo vortex complicates this convection pattern because its variation changes the wind circulation around the southern SCS. The eastward propagation of the MJO from the Indian Ocean gives rise to active or suppressed convection over the area depending on the specific MJO phase, but during CS the active convection phase of MJO does not alter the pattern of convection, which is still dominated by the wind–terrain interaction from the CSs. They also found a reduction in the frequency of

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Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

Ocean warm pool appear to be more susceptible to MJO disturbances, which is supported by the (∼50%) higher ratio between intraseasonal SST and OLR variability in the Indonesian–Australian Basin, especially the southern half of the basin, compared with the western Indian Ocean ( Fig. ES3 ; SST data are based on a high-resolution multisensor SST analysis; Beggs et al. 2011 ). Upper-ocean temperatures rose again after MJO2 toward the end of February 2019, which was captured by both the buoy and one

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