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Zhan Wang, Steven T. Siems, Danijel Belusic, Michael J. Manton, and Yi Huang

1. Introduction The atmospheric environment over the Southern Ocean (SO) is unique: the lack of terrestrial and anthropogenic aerosols creates a pristine environment with few cloud condensation nuclei ( Yum and Hudson 2004 ; Gras 1995 ). Strong winds produce large waves that, when coupled together, generate large concentrations of sea spray ( Murphy et al. 1998 ). Recent satellite observations of the cloud-top thermodynamic phase suggest that vast fields of clouds composed of supercooled

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A. K. Laing

M^- 1985 A.K. LAING 481An Assessment of Wave Observations from Ships in Southern Oceans A. K. LAINGNew Zealand Meteorological Service(Manuscript received 3 May 1984, in final form 19 November 1984)ABSTRACT Observations of wind waves and swell from ship reports are investigated. Comparisons are made betweenestimates of wave parameters made from ships in

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Klaus Wolter

540 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE AND APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME26The Southern Oscillation in Surface Circulation and Climate over the Tropical Atlantic, Eastern Pacific, and Indian Oceans as Captured by Cluster Analysis KLAUS WOLTERDepartment of Meteorology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53706(Manuscript received 30 June 1986, in final form 14 November 1986)ABSTRACT Clusters of sea level

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Gerald G. Mace and Alain Protat

1. Introduction Unlike the northern high latitudes where climate warming is unambiguous, the Southern Ocean (SO) poleward of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) has enigmatically shown little warming over past decades ( Armour et al. 2016 ). This is in contrast to the thinning and shoaling of ice sheets along the west Antarctic and substantial warming equatorward of the ACC. The reasons, while not entirely clear, seem to be derived from an interesting mix of oceanographic processes driven

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Gerald G. Mace and Alain Protat

1. Introduction A persistent and long-standing high bias in absorbed solar radiation at the surface of the Southern Ocean (SO) due to low-biased cloud cover is at the root of many challenges in simulating the response of the southern mid- and high latitudes to climate change ( Trenberth and Fasullo 2010 ; Hwang and Frierson 2013 ; Armour et al. 2016 ). While the SO region is known for frequent and deep midlatitude cyclones that drive persistently strong surface winds and heavy seas, it is the

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J. W. Zillman and D. W. Martin

708JOURNAl, OF APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOLUME 7NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEA Sharp Cold Frontal Passage at Macquarie Island in the Southern Ocean j. w. ZILLMANX AND D. W. MARTINiInternational Antarctic Meteorological Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia 14 December 1967 and 27 March 19681. Introduction An intense cold frontal passage occurred at Macquafie Island (54-30'S, 158-57'E) at 0330 GMT 16 June1966, exactly two hours after an APTa photograph

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S. G. H. Philander

phenomenon are discussed.1. Introduction The Southern Oscillation, an irregular interannualfluctuation between warm El Nifio and cold La Nifiaconditions that is confined primarily to the tropicalPacific and Indian ocean sectors, is attributable to interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. (SeePhilander 1990 for a comprehensive review.) It corresponds to a natural mode of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, somewhat analogous to the way inwhich weather corresponds to (baroelinically unstable

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Harry van Loon

sources over thesouthern hemisphere, regional differences in the strength and distribution of the mean zonal wind do exist,particularly during the colder part of the year. Thus, although on the whole there is a strong control arisingfrom the oceanic dominance of the hemisphere, there are, especially in the Australian sector, large disturbances connected with continental influences on heating and cooling. The strongest zonal westerly mean circulation in the southern hemisphere at the levels dealt

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John Colosi and Tim P. Barnett

that roughly 30-40 fully functional buoysevenly distributed over the southern oceans from 15- to 60-S should be able to resolve the major scales ofSouthern Hemisphere climate change.1. Introduction Conventional atmospheric and oceanic data obtained by ship reports, air flights, etc., are predominantly concentrated over main commercial shippingroutes and there are huge regions of the SouthernHemisphere oceans where data coverage is insufficientto define climatic changes. As a result of this

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N. A. Streten

-scale vortex patterns enabled a number ofregions of high frequency of cyclones, cyclogenesis and cyclolysis to be located over the ocean areas surrounding Antarctica and the principal trajectories of cyclones over the southern oceans to be examined. Theseresults are in substantial agreement with earlier synoptic studies. Little evidence was found for frequentcydogenesis at latitudes ~lose to the Antarctic coast and mid-latitude cyclogenesis was frequently observedwithout classical frontal wave cloud

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