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Björn Lund, Christopher J. Zappa, Hans C. Graber, and Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean is particularly sensitive to climate change, as evidenced by its rapidly rising heat content (e.g., Gille 2002 ). This and other changes to the Southern Ocean climate are dependent on the exchange of energy, mass, and momentum across the interface between ocean and atmosphere (and ice, if present) ( Sprintall et al. 2012 ). Yet, air–sea flux magnitudes and variations in the Southern Ocean are still poorly known ( Sahlée et al. 2012 ). The wave climate of the

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Yanzhou Wei, Sarah T. Gille, Matthew R. Mazloff, Veronica Tamsitt, Sebastiaan Swart, Dake Chen, and Louise Newman

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean serves as a gateway between the atmosphere and the middepth ocean, both because its steeply sloped isopycnals bring intermediate water to the ocean surface (e.g., Marshall and Speer 2012 ) and because winter mode water formation mixes recently ventilated water into the ocean interior (e.g., Hanawa and Talley 2001 ; Cerovečki et al. 2013 ). The region is responsible for much of the global ocean uptake of CO 2 ( Caldeira and Duffy 2000 ; Sabine et al. 2004

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Kaylan Randolph, Heidi M. Dierssen, Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen, William M. Balch, Edward C. Monahan, Christopher J. Zappa, Dave T. Drapeau, and Bruce Bowler

baseline and statistical approach for identifying whitecap features in the record, is described in section 3 . Data collected at several stations in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during a wide range of physical forcing and wave-breaking conditions are presented in section 4 . An assessment of the method, including the removal of the baseline and a selection of whitecap records using single- and double-radiometer systems, is presented in section 5a . The whitecap quantities resolved are

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Natalia Ribeiro, Mauricio M. Mata, José Luiz L. de Azevedo, and Mauro Cirano

1. Introduction Among the water properties sampled and analyzed in the oceans, temperature represents the largest part of the available data. That is in part due to the relatively simple and inexpensive measurement methods used. In this sense much of the existing temperature data in the Southern Ocean were measured using expendable bathythermographs (XBT), originally developed for military use during the 1960s but widely deployed for upper-ocean scientific research, especially after the 1970s

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Ming Li, Jiping Liu, Zhenzhan Wang, Hui Wang, Zhanhai Zhang, Lin Zhang, and Qinghua Yang

). Therefore, accurate sea surface wind is needed for various applications. This is particularly true in the convectively active Southern Ocean (i.e., the Southern Ocean hosts the climatologically strongest sea surface wind in the world), which drives the deep and vigorous Antarctic Circumpolar Current eastward around the Antarctic continent ( Rintoul et al. 2001 ). These winds push the surface waters away from the Antarctic continent through Ekman transport, creating a massive divergence-driven upwelling

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Keishi Shimada, Shigeru Aoki, and Kay I. Ohshima

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean is pivotal in the meridional overturning circulation of the global oceans because it connects all major ocean basins (e.g., Schmitz 1996 ). Recently, widespread freshening of water masses, possibly linked to enhanced basal melt of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (e.g., Pritchard et al. 2012 ; Rignot et al. 2013 ), has been reported in the Southern Ocean ( Schmidtko et al. 2014 ; Aoki et al. 2013 ; Boyer et al. 2005 ). Furthermore, there has been clear evidence of

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Vidhi Bharti, Eric Schulz, Christopher W. Fairall, Byron W. Blomquist, Yi Huang, Alain Protat, Steven T. Siems, and Michael J. Manton

1. Introduction The poor knowledge of surface heat fluxes over the Southern Ocean contributes to large uncertainty in the global surface heat and ocean heat budget closure ( Josey et al. 1999 ; Fasullo and Trenberth 2008 ). The current goal set by the global climate community is to achieve global surface net flux accuracy of ±10 W m −2 at a monthly resolution ( Fairall et al. 2010 ), which implies determining fluxes accurately to within 5 W m −2 at 3–6-h time resolution and 1° spatial

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A. J. S. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and S. R. Rintoul

1. Introduction Observations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Southern Ocean are in general extremely sparse in time and space. While the Argo program has dramatically improved the in situ coverage of the Southern Ocean, this dataset only exists from 2002 onward, and the spatial resolution at any instant remains relatively low. This low resolution at depth restricts the observational analysis of subsurface ACC variability to hydrographic sections, and basin- or circumpolar

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Kevin M. Schmidt, Sebastiaan Swart, Chris Reason, and Sarah-Anne Nicholson

1. Introduction Mid- to high-latitude regions in the Southern Ocean are host to the strongest wind fields at the ocean surface. These strong winds (speeds > 20 m s −1 ; Yuan 2004 ) significantly impact upper-ocean properties and processes, such as mixed layer dynamics, Ekman processes, and air–sea exchange. Exchanges in heat, moisture, and momentum at the air–sea interface are facilitated by sea surface winds. In addition to driving physical processes at the sea surface, these winds also have

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Brian J. Butterworth and Scott D. Miller

1. Introduction Air–sea exchange at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere affects the global climate system. The fluxes of momentum and heat affect cold-water formation and the global oceanic circulation ( Rintoul et al. 2010 ), and the Southern Ocean is responsible for roughly half the CO 2 absorbed by the world’s oceans ( Takahashi et al. 2012 ). The Southern Ocean is also changing—warming more rapidly than the global average sea temperature ( Rintoul et al. 2010 )—and some studies

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