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Tatsuya Seiki and Woosub Roh

shortwave cloud radiative forcing (SWCRF) over the Southern Ocean ( Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2012 ; Williams et al. 2013 ). Bodas-Salcedo confirmed that the SWCRF bias mainly originated from underestimation of supercooled liquid water in low-level mixed-phase clouds. Large intermodal spread in supercooled liquid water over the mid- to high-latitude regions results in large uncertainties in cloud feedbacks (e.g., McCoy et al. 2015 ). The SWCRF bias mainly originates from poor representation of cloud

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Philip Sura

) . In reanalyzed datasets [NCEP or European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)] observations are assimilated within an atmospheric model to produce the analyzed fields that are consistent with the model dynamics. Nevertheless, the spatial and temporal coverage of observations over the oceans (in particular over the Southern Ocean) is very limited. That is, the used QuikSCAT-based dataset contains much more wind observations over the oceans than the reanalyzed products. Therefore, in

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Qingfang Jiang, Alex Reinecke, and James D. Doyle

by triangles and a gravity wave variance maximum from previous studies (e.g., Jiang et al. 2002 ) highlighted by a gray ellipse and the modified model terrain of (b) SGI (grayscale and contour intervals are 0.2 and 0.4 km), (c) PAT (grayscale and contour intervals are 0.3 and 0.6 km), and (d) ANT (grayscale and contour intervals are 0.3 and 0.6 km). The objective of this study is to gain new insight into the orographic contribution to the stratospheric wave drag over the Southern Ocean

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Andrew Roberts, John Guckenheimer, Esther Widiasih, Axel Timmermann, and Christopher K. R. T. Jones

chaos in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 21 , 2817–2820 , doi: 10.1029/94GL02759 . Chang , P. , L. Ji , B. Wang , and T. Li , 1995 : Interactions between the seasonal cycle and El Niño-Southern Oscillation in an intermediate coupled ocean-atmosphere model . J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 2353–2372 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<2353:IBTSCA>2.0.CO;2 . Cortez , M. , 2011 : Understanding the effects of rapid adaptation on predator-prey interactions using the

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Kalli Furtado and Paul Field

1. Introduction The poor representation of mixed-phase clouds in models is a possible cause of the severe Southern Ocean radiation biases seen in many climate models ( Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2012 ; Williams et al. 2013 ; Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2014 ) and is also key to understanding the predicted climate sensitivity of the planet ( Ceppi et al. 2016 ; McCoy et al. 2015 ). Many general circulation models show large deficits (of up to −40 W m −2 during the Southern Hemisphere summer) in the solar

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Riwal Plougonven, Valérian Jewtoukoff, Alvaro de la Cámara, François Lott, and Albert Hertzog

Southern Ocean in Fig. 1 . As expected, the wind speed is a large-scale field, with some small-scale modulations tied to gravity waves. In contrast, the GWMF is patchy, shows very large variations (note the logarithmic color scale) and displays variations on a wide range of spatial scales. Nonetheless, it appears that, over ocean regions, the stronger values of GWMF are more likely to be found in regions of strong wind. The present investigation sets out to describe and quantify this relation for the

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Ping Chang, Link Ji, Bin Wang, and Tim Li

I JULY 1995 CHANG ET AL. 2353Interactions between the Seasonal Cycle and El Nifio-Southern Oscillation in an Intermediate Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model PING CI-IANG A~D L~N/C JI Department of Oceanography, Texas A&amp;M University, College Station, Texas Bi~ WANGDepartment of Meteorology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii

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Woosub Roh, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, Hajime Okamoto, and Tatsuya Seiki

1. Introduction The phases of hydrometeors are an important factor in determining the radiative effects of clouds over the Southern Ocean. The simulation of mixed-phase clouds is difficult in general circulation models (GCMs) and cloud-system-resolving models ( Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2014 ; Cesana et al. 2015 ). It is known that the poor representation of mixed-phase clouds in models is a possible cause of radiation biases over the Southern Ocean and that a significant fraction of the bias is

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Ara Arakelian and Francis Codron

1. Introduction The atmospheric variability over the Southern Ocean is dominated at time scales longer than a week by zonally symmetric meridional fluctuations of the jet, a structure known as the southern annular mode (SAM). The SAM also has a large impact on the ocean ( Sen Gupta and England 2006 ) and often dominates the regional response to external forcings, such as greenhouse gas increase, ozone depletion ( Gillett and Thompson 2003 ; Perlwitz et al. 2008 ; Son et al. 2010 ), or El Niño

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David L. T. Anderson and Julian P. McCreary Jr.

15 NOVEMBER 1985 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 2439NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEOn the Role of the Indian Ocean in a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Modell of El Ni~o and the Southern Oscillation DAVID L. T. ANDERSONDepartment of Atmospheric Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford University, OX1 3PU, England JULIAN P. MCCREARY, JR.Nova University Oceanographic Center, Dania, FL 3300412 March 1985 and

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