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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

–cooling cycle. In contrast, the variability in the Tropics originates from the changes of the flow field on seasonal time scales and from Rossby wave activity there. However, most of the enhanced variability on the western and eastern sides of the Pacific Ocean and in the Indian Ocean are associated with the 1997/98 ENSO event. In the Southern Ocean, enhanced variability southwest of Australia and upstream of Drake Passage is associated with high-latitude barotropic activity. Figure 6 shows the mean

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A. J. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts

(1998) indicate that significant freshwater transports also occur in similar regions to heat transports. The net eddy freshwater transport across the ACC is northward, as the Southern Ocean is a significant (≈0.5 Sv; Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) freshwater source south of 30°S ( Wijffels et al. 1992 ). There is relatively more freshwater transport at depth, when compared with heat transport, and this is likely to result in a reduced eddy contribution to the total freshwater transport, as significant eddy

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Victor Zlotnicki, John Wahr, Ichiro Fukumori, and Yuhe T. Song

spatially averaged “BP” along long segments to the south and to the north of the ACC, to assess whether north–south differences are a better measure of ACC transport that southern BP alone; and to relate this proxy for the transport variability to actual satellite-measured winds. We first show that these observations are consistent, within their error ranges, with two different baroclinic numerical ocean models. We then show that these changes are coherent among the three basins, within their error

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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

, but there was a considerable lack of agreement about the distribution of these regional patterns between various models, with only two robust exceptions: first, a maximum increase of sea level in the Arctic Ocean from enhanced freshwater input, and second, a minimum reduction of sea level in the Southern Ocean. In the open ocean basins, where geostrophy holds, the change of local- and basin-scale sea level gradients is a direct measure of large-scale circulation changes ( Gregory et al. 2001

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Reiner Schlitzer

using 14 C/ 12 C ratios instead of absolute 14 C concentrations is that biological effects can be largely ignored ( Fiadeiro 1982 ), as they affect 14 C and 12 C in the same manner. The radiocarbon surface boundary concentrations are taken from Key et al. (2004) , who provide estimates of natural 14 C for the World Ocean. Natural Δ 14 C values in low- and midlatitude surface waters are typically between −45‰ and −65‰, while much lower values between −100‰ and −120‰ are found in the Southern

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Serguei Sokolov and Stephen R. Rintoul

thought to disrupt the generation of continuous jets. The circumpolar channel of the Southern Ocean is an exception to the zonally bounded nature of the ocean basins, and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) provides the best oceanic example of the tendency toward zonation of the flow. Zonal jets have recently been found to exist in a number of other ocean basins as well (e.g., Nakano and Hasumi 2005 ; Maximenko et al. 2005 ). The flow of the ACC is well known to be concentrated in several jets

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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

occurred at 40°S, where the 4 W m −2 of warming in the upper 750 m was more than 4 times the global average. In the present work, this spatial inhomogeneity in ocean warming is explained by the deepening of isopycnal surfaces that signal the spinup of deep ocean gyres. The most energetic patterns of extratropical variability in the lower atmosphere are the annular modes—the Northern Hemisphere annular mode (NAM), or Arctic Oscillation, and its counterpart, the Southern Hemisphere annular mode (SAM

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Manfred Wenzel and Jens Schröter

), which leads to the aforementioned anomalous strong eustatic sea level fall. Looking at the other basins in more detail, one finds that the mass surplus results from different balances: in the tropical region of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific the net input by precipitation is not compensated for by the mass divergence, while for the northern and southern ocean basins the mass convergence is not balanced by net evaporation. Within the ACC there is net precipitation in all sectors overcompensating

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D. E. Harrison and Mark Carson

; with the exception of coastal waters, it is along these lanes that the upper ocean is best sampled. Even at 100 m, large areas of the Southern Hemisphere ocean have fewer than 25 observations per bin, but broad regions of the North Atlantic and Pacific are sampled at 50–100 observations per bin. At 300 m the shipping lanes are sampled much the same, but there is less sampling off the main routes. By 500 m most of the ocean is sampled at less than 25 observations per bin. At depths greater than 600

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

radius 112 km (≈1° spherical distance). The root-mean-square (rms) difference on a ⅓°-grid over the oceans is still 131 m and the maximum differences are as large as 2000 m. On large scales, the topographies differ by approximately 100 m, for example, south of Australia in the Southern Ocean. Such differences are significant since they can be represented in ocean models. As a reference, Fig. 1b depicts the topography used in the present study. State estimation based on control theory provides a

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