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John C. Fyfe, Oleg A. Saenko, Kirsten Zickfeld, Michael Eby, and Andrew J. Weaver

1. Introduction The higher-than-expected warming of intermediate-level waters in the Southern Ocean in recent decades ( Gille 2002 ) has been reproduced in the latest series of global climate model simulations, which include time-varying changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases, sulfate aerosols, and volcanic aerosols in the earth’s atmosphere ( Fyfe 2006 ). The agreement between observations and state-of-the-art global climate models suggests significant human influence on Southern Ocean

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M. J. Manton, Y. Huang, and S. T. Siems

. On the other hand, they both lie in the midst of the Southern Ocean, which is the one region of the global atmosphere and ocean where the effects of landmasses are minimal. The region from 65° to 35°S is our best approximation to an aquaplanet ( Fig. 1 ). However, the landmasses of South America, southern Africa, and Australasia (as well as the Antarctic Peninsula) are likely to introduce some longitudinal variations in climate. Latitudinal variations will be driven at least by the large

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Sarah T. Gille

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean is a sparsely sampled section of the global oceans. Not only is it large and accessible from only a few ports, but it is also an inhospitable environment, with high sea states forced by the strongest winds in the world. As a result, temperature data collected by research vessels over the past few decades contain numerous gaps, which impede assessment of Southern Ocean and overall Southern Hemisphere temperature change. Southern Hemisphere uncertainties are

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Lavinia Patara, Claus W. Böning, and Toste Tanhua

1. Introduction The transport of surface waters into the ocean interior (“ventilation”) is a key process for global budgets of heat, oxygen, nutrients, and carbon ( Sabine et al. 2004 ; Armour et al. 2016 ; Talley et al. 2016 ). The large inorganic carbon and heat storage capacity of the World Ocean is rate limited by the sluggish mixing between surface water and the interior ocean. A prominent region where ventilation of the ocean interior takes place is the midlatitude Southern Ocean, where

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Adele K. Morrison, Matthew H. England, and Andrew McC. Hogg

1. Introduction Broad-scale patterns in high-latitude Southern Ocean temperature and salinity trends have emerged in the observations over recent decades. Despite warming atmospheric temperature and enhanced heat flux entering the upper ocean, the sea surface temperature (SST) south of 50°S has cooled ( Bintanja et al. 2013 ; Latif et al. 2013 ). Durack and Wijffels (2010) have shown freshening of the sea surface salinity (SSS) extending across the same region. In contrast, in the abyssal

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William R. Hobbs, Christopher Roach, Tilla Roy, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, and Nathaniel Bindoff

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean has a disproportionally large impact on the global climate system through its prominent role in the ocean uptake of anthropogenic heat and carbon ( Rintoul and Church 2002 ). Consistent with observation-based estimates, models indicate that the Southern Ocean south of 30°S was responsible for 43% ± 3% of global ocean anthropogenic CO 2 uptake from 1861 to 2005, and 75% ± 22% of anthropogenic heat uptake over the same period ( Frolicher et al. 2015 ); since

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James A. Screen, Nathan P. Gillett, David P. Stevens, Gareth J. Marshall, and Howard K. Roscoe

1. Introduction The southern annular mode (SAM) is the dominant mode of extratropical atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere ( Thompson and Wallace 2000 ; Marshall et al. 2004 ). Southern Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) respond to the SAM through a combination of modified surface currents and atmosphere–ocean heat fluxes ( Hall and Visbeck 2002 ; Verdy et al. 2006 ; Sen Gupta and England 2006 ; Ciasto and Thompson 2008 ). During the positive phase of the SAM, stronger

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Jiping Liu, Tingyin Xiao, and Liqi Chen

critical than the convectively active Southern Ocean. The Southern Ocean is the crossroad of the global ocean’s water mass, connecting the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans as well as the deep ocean to the surface (e.g., Gordon 1988 ; White and Peterson 1996 ; Lumpkin and Speer 2007 ; Mayewski et al. 2009 ). The Southern Ocean hosts the climatologically strongest sea surface winds in the world, which drive the deep and vigorous Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC; e.g., Rintoul et al. 2001

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Christopher J. Conrad and Nicole S. Lovenduski

1. Introduction Ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 has substantially decreased surface carbonate ion concentration ( ) ( Caldeira and Wickett 2003 ; Feely et al. 2004 ; Orr et al. 2005 ). The Southern Ocean is particularly vulnerable to surface depletion due to the region’s naturally low concentration of carbonate ion ( Fabry 2009 ) and high uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 ( Khatiwala et al. 2009 ). Calcifiers, whose shells dissolve in the presence of carbonate depleted waters, are key

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Liping Zhang, Thomas L. Delworth, William Cooke, Hugues Goosse, Mitchell Bushuk, Yushi Morioka, and Xiaosong Yang

1. Introduction Multidecadal to centennial variability in the Southern Ocean (SO) is difficult to detect and characterize due to limited in situ observations. Paleoclimate tree ring records over adjacent continents do show long time scale variations in the past hundreds of years (e.g., Cook et al. 2000 ; Le Quesne et al. 2009 ). These low-frequency variations are seen in multiple climate models, including the Kiel Climate Model (e.g., Martin et al. 2013 ; Latif et al. 2013 ), Geophysical

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