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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

1. Introduction It is well established that coupled ocean–atmosphere variability in the tropics, including El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), exerts extensive influence on extratropical climatic conditions via atmospheric teleconnection. In contrast, the influence of extratropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on large-scale extratropical atmospheric circulation has long been believed to be insignificant in the presence of the prevailing dominant remote influence from the tropics

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

northwestern Pacific Ocean in the middle of January 2013. The cyclone migrated along the southern periphery of the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension and was the most rapidly developing cyclone in recent years in the vicinity of the Kuroshio Extension ( Fig. 1 ). It caused severe weather disasters, with heavy snowfall and exceptionally strong winds in Japan. To reproduce the detailed structures of the cyclone system and the associated air–sea interaction, we need to properly simulate the heat and water exchanges

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, Sarah Larson, and Robert A. Tomas

, from LR, at individual locations. (a) Subtropical North Atlantic, 21°N, 39°W. (b) Gulf Stream, 41°N, 54°W. (c) Southern Ocean 45°S, 130°E. Averaged to 50 m depth. Legend is shown at right. Here TEND denotes heat content tendency, vdiff is total vertical diffusion including surface heat flux, adv is 3D advection (OHFC), and resid is the residual of the budget. Two further example time series from the LR run show different balances. In the Gulf Stream region ( Fig. 1b ), both OHFC and VDIFF

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Ayumu Miyamoto, Hisashi Nakamura, and Takafumi Miyasaka

thus such westward extension of a large LCF area into winter as seen over the south Indian Ocean is not apparent. Still, the seasonality of low-level clouds over the south Indian Ocean has not been examined in detail. Fig. 1 . (a) Climatological-mean SLP (contoured for every 4 hPa, with thick lines for 1020 hPa) and LCF (color shaded for every 10% as indicated on the right) over the southern oceans in austral summer (DJF). (b) Climatological-mean surface winds (m s −1 , arrows with reference on the

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, and Shang-Ping Xie

Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) Tokyo, Japan Meteorological Agency are used. 3. Overview of baiu seasonal march Figure 1 compares the climatological baiu rainband in June and July between JRA-25 and AFES. In June, the baiu rainband extends over southern China through the southern coast of Japan to the northwestern Pacific Ocean in JRA-25 ( Fig. 1a ). Precipitation is strong over southern China, the East China Sea, and southwestern Japan, gradually weakening east of Japan over the northwestern

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

shown. (e) First (red curve) and second (black) EOF eigenfunctions (nondimensional) of potential density over the entire ocean depth (but only shown for the upper 1000 m) and over 142°E–100°W along the southern latitudinal band. To examine the density signatures associated with the propagating signals along the southern section, depth–longitude sections are constructed for the regression coefficients of potential density anomalies onto local anomalies of SSH ( Fig. 3c ) and OHC ( Fig. 3d ). Westward

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Kohei Takatama and Niklas Schneider

focused on its impact on the ocean and subsequent coupled responses. This effect improves simulations of El Niño–Southern Oscillation ( Luo et al. 2005 ), of tropical instability waves ( Seo et al. 2007 ; Small et al. 2009 ), and of eddy energetics in the California Current ( Seo et al. 2016 ). The impact on the atmosphere of the momentum transport from ocean currents has focused on the direct response of winds and wind stress. Kelly et al. (2001) indicated along-current wind stress increases of

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Shinichiro Kida, Bo Qiu, Jiayan Yang, and Xiaopei Lin

coefficient of 0.03. Bottom drag acts only on the layer that is in direct contact with the bottom topography. To avoid the Kelvin waves from recirculating in the open ocean, viscosity coefficient is enhanced to 1 × 10 4 m 2 s −2 near the model’s southern and eastern boundaries. Fig . 6. (a) The model domain and bottom topography in CTRL. The straits that connect the Japan Sea and the North Pacific are both 40 km wide and 100 m deep. White vectors show the wind stress pattern in January. (b) Zonal cross

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James F. Booth, Young-Oh Kwon, Stanley Ko, R. Justin Small, and Rym Msadek

Joyce 2013 ; O’Reilly and Czaja 2015 ). In the Southern Ocean, south of the Indian Ocean, the Agulhas Return Current (ARC) helps to anchor the climatological location of the free-tropospheric storm track ( Nakamura et al. 2004 ). This causes the region to have a consistent storm track throughout the year, which, for the Southern Ocean storm track, is a trait that is unique to the ARC region. These examples of the oceans influencing the storm tracks primarily focus on the free-tropospheric storm

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Hyodae Seo

and CTL, wind stress curls ( Figs. 4f,g ) are strongly positive in the west of the Findlater Jet axis but weakly negative over the open ocean. The negative stress curl is particularly enhanced over the eastern edge of the GW and CF. The associated negative vorticity forcing onto the ocean is known to spin up the GW ( Leetmaa et al. 1982 ). In contrast, the positive wind stress curl tracks the northern shoulder of the GW, which abuts the southern edge of the CF. All these features are simulated

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