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Kingtse C. Mo, Lindsey N. Long, and Jae-Kyung E. Schemm

. 2009 ). The first REOF explains 27.2% of the variance ( Figure 7a ). It is the trend mode with positive loadings over the three southern oceans. Drought and wet spells over the western mountains and Southern Plains are often influenced by long-term trends ( Mo and Schemm 2008a ; Groisman et al. 2004 ). For these regions, the trend mode enhances the persistence of P . Figure 7. Rotated EOFs for (a) trend mode, (b) ENSO mode, (c) Atlantic SST mode 1 (AMO), (d) Atlantic SST mode 2, (e) North Pacific

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Charles W. Lafon and Steven M. Quiring

orographic precipitation. Second, the Ridge and Valley province to the east, in the rain shadow of the plateau, has a drier climate. Farther east, the Blue Ridge has wetter conditions, similar to the plateau; it receives moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and also impedes some of that moisture from penetrating west to the Ridge and Valley. The fire cycle (i.e., number of years needed to burn an area equivalent to the entire landscape) varied by two orders of magnitude among the three provinces, from 10 845

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Di Long, Bridget R. Scanlon, D. Nelun Fernando, Lei Meng, and Steven M. Quiring

from ~350 m in the east to ~2400 m in the west. Mean annual precipitation is 520 mm (semihumid climate) and ranges from 338 mm in the northwest to 831 mm in the central-east HP [1958–2010; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Climate Prediction Center (CPC) 0.25° gridded daily data] ( Figure 1a ). There are no significant changes in long-term annual precipitation in 90% of the stations with only 10% of stations showing increasing trends at a rate of 26 mm decade −1 ( F statistic

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Daniel J. McEvoy, Justin L. Huntington, John T. Abatzoglou, and Laura M. Edwards

and academic scientists to produce weekly maps classifying drought in the United States. Because of its ease of use and straightforward classification system, the USDM is being used by a number of sectors, including state and federal agencies, agriculture, and media ( Svoboda et al. 2002 ). With development continuing to increase in metropolitan and rural areas and pending major interbasin groundwater transfers planned from eastern to southern Nevada ( Nevada Bureau of Land Management 2012

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Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano, Santiago Beguería, Jorge Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jesús Julio Camarero, Juan I. López-Moreno, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Jesús Revuelto, Enrique Morán-Tejeda, and Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo

found for the Atlantic basins of North America, the basins of central Europe, and some basins of South America and Africa. On the contrary, poor correlations were found in the Asian basins, mainly those that drain to the Arctic Ocean. Nevertheless, in the latter basins, when monthly correlations were analyzed separately, noticeable seasonal impacts were observed since correlations were much higher in July ( Figure 4c ) than in January ( Figure 4b ). In addition, in these zones it is clearly observed

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Richard R. Heim Jr. and Michael J. Brewer

. Regional drought monitoring centers or activities have been established in North America (North American Drought Monitor); Europe (European Drought Observatory through the European Commission Joint Research Center); southeastern Europe; eastern, western, and southern Africa; North Africa; west and central Asia; Southeast Asia (Southeast Asia Drought Monitor developed by the International Water Management Institute); and the Caribbean, and international groups [e.g., the UN Food and Agriculture

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