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Ruixin Yang, Allison Fairley, and Wonsun Park

, takes place. The opposite cold episode, or La Niña, corresponds to SSTA being less than −0.5°C in the same condition [ Climate Prediction Center (CPC) 2015 ]. Complimentary to these anomalous SST values, extreme fluctuations of atmospheric pressure at sea level are also identified throughout the Pacific Ocean, which is commonly known as the Southern Oscillation. These variations from the norm between the western and eastern Pacific are described by the Southern Oscillation index (SOI). The variation

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Arne Melsom, Steven D. Meyers, James J. O'Brien, Harley E. Hurlburt, and Joseph E. Metzger

1. Introduction The continental slope of the northeast Pacific is a major habitat for a number of commercially harvested fish (e.g., salmon, halibut, and herring) ( Cummins and Mysak, 1988 ). It has been suggested that year-to-year changes in fish stock recruitment and return migration routes of certain species in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) are affected by low-frequency ocean variability such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Emery and Hamilton, 1985 ; Mysak, 1985 ). ENSO affects the

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Mark R. Jury and América R. Gaviria Pabón

al. 2002 , 2013 ; Thornhill et al. 2018 ) that generates smoke plumes filled with traces gases such as carbon monoxide (CO) with a residence time of less than 2 months. Biomass burning in the southern Amazon, as in southern Africa, increases during the dry season from July to October ( Garreaud and Aceituno 2001 ; Kingtse and Berbery 2011 ; Jury 2019 ; Yang et al. 2018 ). The smoke plumes extend thousands of kilometers and diminish regional air quality, impacting human health and the

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

coastal cities, where the UHI influences merge with large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. The Southern California air basin (SoCAB) is of particular interest, given reported coastal cooling for the region attributed to GHG-induced warming ( Lebassi et al. 2009 ). To estimate the impacts of urbanization on surface temperatures and daily sea-breeze patterns, a new land-cover classification scheme was derived for the SoCAB using updated airborne remote sensing data from the recent

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Christopher E. Doughty, Scott R. Loarie, and Christopher B. Field

possibly because of the prevailing low pressure and high convection ( Maslin and Burns 2000 ). A previous study using the same model (CAM3.0 plus CLM3.5 and a slab ocean model) darkened the Northern Hemisphere by increasing tree cover in the midlatitudes and found that atmospheric circulation redistributed the anomalous energy absorbed in the Northern Hemisphere toward the south, which altered the Hadley circulation and resulted in a northward movement of the ITCZ and a drying of the southern Amazon

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Jeffrey Park and Michael E. Mann

the anomalous global warmth of the 1980s has been at least partly associated with an interdecadal excursion of the climate (e.g., Trenberth, 1990 ; Trenberth and Hurrell, 1994 ; Graham, 1994 ) that may represent a natural oscillatory mode of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system ( Latif and Barnett, 1994 ; Robertson, 1996 ; Ghil and Vautard, 1991 ; Mann and Park, 1996 ). Certainly, El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), itself an intrinsic climate process, has significantly contributed to the

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Olivia Kellner and Dev Niyogi

highlights a midgrowing season scenario. Historic oceanic Niño index data can be found online (at www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/ensostuff/ensoyears.shtml ). 4.2. Arctic Oscillation seasonal impacts and agronomic decision-making 4.2.1. Mean temperatures As related to agricultural decision-making, spring is warmest across the domain when the AO is in a neutral episode. The coldest mean temperatures in spring occur during a negative AO episode across the southern two-thirds of the

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M. Sekhar, M. Shindekar, Sat K. Tomer, and P. Goswami

( Zekster and Loaiciga 1993 ; Allen et al. 2004 ; Green et al. 2007 ; Scibek et al. 2007 ), most of these are limited to impacts on recharge and discharge conditions in moderate/large size catchments. Hansen and Dettinger ( Hansen and Dettinger 2005 ) performed a study focusing on linkage between global-scale climate variations and local groundwater response for a coastal aquifer basin of Southern California. Simulations using multiple ensembles of the ECHAM-3.6 were explored by incorporating the

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A. S. Alhumaima and S. M. Abdullaev

historical climate simulations . Environ. Res. Lett. , 10 , 064005 , https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/6/064005 . 10.1088/1748-9326/10/6/064005 Pourasghar , F. , E. C. J. Oliver , and N. J. Holbrook , 2019 : Modulation of wet season rainfall over Iran by the Madden–Julian oscillation, Indian Ocean dipole and El Niño–Southern Oscillation . Int. J. Climatol. , 39 , 4029 – 4040 , https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6057 . 10.1002/joc.6057 Reichle , R. H. , C. S. Draper , Q. Liu , M

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Mark R. Jury

the detrended Agulhas SST index in the satellite era: warm—1983, 1992, 1993, 1999, 2000, and 2007—and cold—1981, 1982, 1988, 1990, 1995, and 1996. The successive-year pattern is related to natural persistence in the marine climate and to calendar years dividing the southern summer and ENSO influence. Warm minus cold composite fields are calculated for upper-ocean currents and salinity, surface winds, and latent heat fluxes and the meridional atmospheric circulation and humidity. The detrended

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