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Anthony E. Morrison, Steven T. Siems, Michael J. Manton, and Alex Nazarov

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean and its accompanying air mass are among the most pristine environments on earth. A recent satellite climatology employing Cloudsat ( Mace et al. 2007 ) concludes that the majority of clouds over this region can broadly be categorized into two types. The most common are low and shallow having bases and tops below 3 km. The less prevalent type is relatively deeper clouds having bases below 3 km and tops between 5 and 10 km. Furthermore, typically

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Hsiao-ming Hsu, Lie-Yauw Oey, Walter Johnson, Clive Dorman, and Richard Hodur

1. Introduction Wind is an important forcing of the coastal oceans ( Allen 1980 ). This is so for the Central California Shelf and Slope (CCSS) and Southern California Bight (SoCB), and the transition zone in between [i.e., the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) see Fig. 1 ]. These are regions where the effects of wind stress curl are also important ( Oey 1996 , 1999 ; Munchow 2000 ). However, with a few exceptions involving aircraft measurements during limited time periods ( Brink and Muench 1986

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Jérôme Patoux, Gregory J. Hakim, and Robert A. Brown

1989 , 1994 ; McMurdie and Katsaros 1991 ; Yuan et al. 1999 ; Milliff et al. 1999 ; Hilburn et al. 2003 ) and fronts or frontogenesis ( Zierden et al. 2000 ; Yeh et al. 2002 ) but not to study frontal instabilities. The goal of this study is to apply an attribution technique to scatterometer data to analyze the development of three fronts over the Southern Ocean. The technique is used to reconstruct the environmental flow in which the fronts are embedded and analyze the impact of this flow on

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Yoshiki Fukutomi and Tetsuzo Yasunari

Figure 3 shows the horizontal flow structure of the low-level surge at 850 hPa. Left panels ( Figs. 3a–c ) show composites of total wind vectors and the meridional wind component ( υ: shading and contour) for days −3, 0, and +3. At day 0, southeasterly–southerly flow penetrates from the SH subtropics into the southern Bay of Bengal over the eastern Indian Ocean. This surge flow converges with Asian monsoon westerly flow that extends from the Arabian Sea to the Philippines. The meridional surge

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Mark A. Lander and Charles P. Guard

1. Introduction This summary of 1997 western North Pacific, north Indian Ocean, and Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclones (TCs) was compiled from the archives of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Guam ( JTWC 1997 ). The JTWC is a joint U.S. Navy–Air Force activity with a forecast area of responsibility that extends from 180° westward to the coast of Africa, north and south of the equator. Seventy percent of the world's TCs develop in this area. The Naval Pacific Meteorology and

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David H. Bromwich, Frank M. Robasky, Richard I. Cullather, and Michael L. Van Woert

3518 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 123The Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle over the Southern Ocean and An .tgrctica from Operational Numerical Analyses* DAVID H. BROMWICH,* FRANK M. ROBASKY,* AND RICHARD I. CULLATHERPolar Meteorology Group, Byrd Polar Research Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio MICHAEL L. VAN WOERTOffice of Naval Research, Arlington

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OCTOBER, 1924 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW 507CYCLONIC DISTURBANCES IN SOUTHERN OCEANSBy ALBERT J. McCumy, Jr.South Atlantic Ocean.-Weather reports thus far re- ceived from vessels that traversed the sliippin routes ofthe South Atlantic Ocean in October, 1924, inficate onlyofficer, states that recorded a t 8force 5. from the southwest but lasted only until noon.. m. on the 9th in 28" 32' S., 47" W.By the 12th the gale had increased to force 10This same gale was experienced b the American S. S

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Alexander Pui, Ashish Sharma, Agus Santoso, and Seth Westra

exacerbated by complexities within ENSO itself (e.g., Westra and Sharma 2006 ). Thus, a second goal of this present study is to evaluate the impact of other major climate modes on daily and subdaily rainfall statistics. To this extent, we focus on the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), which is of tropical origin, and the southern annular mode (SAM), of extratropical origin, both of which have significant impact over regional east Australia during austral winter and spring (see, e.g., Risbey et al. 2009a ). The

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Yi Huang, Steven T. Siems, Michael J. Manton, and Gregory Thompson

1. Introduction Clouds over the Southern Ocean (SO) exert an enormous influence on the regional radiative budget (e.g., Haynes et al. 2011 ; Mace et al. 2007 ), as well as the energy and water transport to the Antarctic ( Zelinka and Hartmann 2012 ). Yet as detailed in Trenberth and Fasullo (2010) , the radiative budget over the SO has been found to be poorly represented in both state-of-the-art reanalysis and coupled global climate models, and is directly linked to the simulations of these

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pressure 29.38-in 44' 16' N., 170' 41' W.5reported t E is, recordin a steady south wind for someShe was in 27' 30' N., 123' 40' E., ear f y on the 6th whenforce was 8, shifting from N. through E. to S E .force 9. Of these few a WNW. gale, P orce 10, wasBmerican S. S. Presi d ent Jackson on the 24th, in 49' 49'northern part of the ocean east of 180'. 6 ne covered anoted outside o P the ty hoon area. This was recorded byCYCLONIC DISTURBANCES I N SOUTHERN OCEANSBy ALBERT J. MCCURDY, Jr.South Paci$c Ocean

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