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Navid C. Constantinou

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean, and in particular the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), are key elements of the climate system. The ACC is driven by a combination of strong westerly winds and buoyancy forcing. Straub (1993) advanced the remarkable hypothesis that the equilibrated ACC zonal transport should be insensitive to the strength of the wind stress forcing. This insensitivity was later verified in eddy-resolving ocean models of the Southern Ocean and is now referred to as eddy

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Ryan Abernathey and Paola Cessi

1. Introduction Midlatitude gyre flows, confined within closed basins, produce a relatively shallow thermocline. In contrast, the Southern Ocean’s unique geometry permits the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to circumnavigate the globe, accompanied by much deeper stratification. Many studies have shown that the stratification generated in the ACC pervades the global ocean below roughly 500-m depth ( Toggweiler and Samuels 1995 ; Gnanadesikan 1999 ; Wolfe and Cessi 2010 ; Kamenkovich and

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Carlowen A. Smith, Kevin G. Speer, and Ross W. Griffiths

1. Introduction In the Southern Ocean, the air–sea buoyancy flux acts together with the wind stress to create the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). This current flows essentially in geostrophic balance with the meridional density gradient set by the freezing temperatures near Antarctica and the warm subtropical gyres. The ACC is not a single front but a complex system of fronts, several of which are thought to be of circumpolar extent ( Orsi et al. 1995 ). Two principal fronts typically

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Juan A. Saenz, Rémi Tailleux, Edward D. Butler, Graham O. Hughes, and Kevin I. C. Oliver

the volume of water masses found in the overlap region represents a negligible fraction of the overall ocean volume. It follows that the reference position for a large majority of the fluid parcels is unique and stable. The volume of the water parcels inside the overlap region is 0.0023% of the global ocean volume in the WOA09 dataset. The vast majority of these water parcels are Antarctic surface waters, in the Southern Ocean south of 60°S, with the remaining volume located in the Arctic Ocean

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Catherine A. Vreugdenhil, Andrew McC. Hogg, Ross W. Griffiths, and Graham O. Hughes

1. Introduction The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) of the ocean involves the sinking of dense water at high latitudes in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean. In the North Atlantic, the dense water sinking from the surface supplies an upper overturning cell in which the return upwelling is thought to occur primarily along isopycnals in the Southern Ocean, sloped due to Ekman pumping ( Marshall and Speer 2012 ). The dense waters formed on the Antarctic shelves supply a bottom water

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Michael A. Spall

circulation is first considered using an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) primitive equation general circulation model (MITgcm; Marshall et al. 1997 ). The model domain consists of three basins: a southern reservoir of warm, salty water (the North Atlantic); a northern semienclosed basin (the Arctic Ocean); and a basin that connects these two (the Nordic seas) ( Fig. 2 ). Although the model is clearly very idealized, and not intended to represent the real

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Xia Liu, Mu Mu, and Qiang Wang

1. Introduction The Kuroshio, the well-known western boundary current of the wind-driven subtropical gyre in the North Pacific Ocean, exhibits a remarkable bimodal feature as it flows through the southern region of Japan and forms either a large meander (LM) path or a non-large-meander (NLM) path (or the straight path) ( Taft 1972 ). The NLM path is also sometimes divided into the offshore NLM (oNLM) path and the nearshore NLM (nNLM) path ( Fig. 1 ) ( Kawabe 1995 ). Once the NLM path or the LM

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Roy Barkan, Kraig B. Winters, and Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith

. Furthermore, Nikurashin et al. (2013) have demonstrated in numerical simulations that include realistic Southern Ocean topography that topographically generated internal waves play an important role in the total E k dissipation. However, because they did not distinguish between mean and eddy fields it is hard to evaluate what fraction of the internal waves was excited by the mean flow and what fraction was excited by the eddies. In the ocean, LOB due to both frontal instability near the surface and

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Nicolas Grisouard and Leif N. Thomas

-wavenumber internal waves in the Kuroshio . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 34 , 1495 – 1505 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2004)034<1495:OOEHIW>2.0.CO;2 . Remmler , S. , M. D. Fruman , and S. Hickel , 2013 : Direct numerical simulation of a breaking inertia–gravity wave . J. Fluid Mech. , 722 , 424 – 436 , doi: 10.1017/jfm.2013.108 . Rosso , I. , A. M. Hogg , A. E. Kiss , and B. Gayen , 2015 : Topographic influence on sub-mesoscale dynamics in the Southern Ocean . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 42 , 1139

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R. M. Holmes and L. N. Thomas

( Lien et al. 1995 ; McPhaden 2002 ), the Madden–Julian oscillation ( Chi et al. 2014 ), and tropical instability waves (TIWs) ( Menkes et al. 2006 ; Moum et al. 2009 ; Inoue et al. 2012 ) may have an important impact on the mean state of the Pacific Ocean and thus on global climate. Generated in the eastern tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, TIWs propagate westward with wavelengths of 700–1600 km and periods of 15–40 days ( Qiao and Weisberg 1995 ; Kennan and Flament 2000 ; Willett et al

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