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Hui Wu

ocean pressure anomaly is set, and the red line signifies the location where Pe β = 1. a. Effect of shelf orientations Figure 4 shows the SSH and associated barotropic currents with the shelf bathymetry shown in Fig. 3a for the western boundary, northern boundary, eastern boundary, and southern boundary shelves, respectively. The associated f -plane solution is shown in Fig. 5b . At first glance, these results were similar. The pressure anomaly propagated downshelf and was then transmitted

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Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

surface temperature of the tropical Pacific Ocean and implications for the El Niño–Southern Oscillation . Climate Dyn. , 40 , 1223 – 1236 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1331-2 . 10.1007/s00382-012-1331-2 Li , Q. , D. M. Farmer , T. F. Duda , and S. Ramp , 2009 : Acoustical measurement of nonlinear internal waves using the inverted echo sounder . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 26 , 2228 – 2242 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JTECHO652.1 . 10.1175/2009JTECHO652.1 Marshall , D. P

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Madeleine M. Hamann, Matthew H. Alford, Andrew J. Lucas, Amy F. Waterhouse, and Gunnar Voet

. Studies of internal wave reflection in canyons are limited, but studies of reflection from steep continental slopes show that incident mode-1 waves are accompanied by back reflection and scattering to modes 2 and higher. Globally, mode-1 internal tides encountering the continental slope transmit 20% of their energy onto the shelf, while 40% scatters to higher modes and 40% reflects back to the ocean interior ( Kelly et al. 2013 ). Locally, these percentages vary depending on stratification and the

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Gunnar Voet, Matthew H. Alford, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, and Jonathan D. Nash

( Melet et al. 2014 ). Lee waves seem to play a considerable role in the energy budget of mesoscale eddies, extracting as much as 0.12 TW from the eddy field in the Southern Ocean ( Yang et al. 2018 ). Furthermore, where in the water column lee waves break and dissipate their energy—whether this occurs in the bottom layer or if energy propagates upward—matters for the overturning circulation ( Melet et al. 2014 ). The fraction of lee-wave energy ultimately available for turbulent mixing depends on the

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Frederick T. Mayer and Oliver B. Fringer

frequency-band narrowing, resulting from the near-bottom decay of N during spinup of nonlinear lee waves [Eq. (14) ] such that the window of drag-producing bathymetry shrinks according to f < Uk < N adj < N . If dramatic enough, or in regions of strong rotation, it could make all lee waves evanescent, snuffing out the lee wave drag ( Kunze and Lien 2019 ). Finally, Nikurashin and Ferrari (2010) demonstrate that in the Southern Ocean where rotation is strong, saturation-level velocities in

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, Matthew H. Alford, Daniel L. Rudnick, Gunnar Voet, and Hemantha Wijesekera

1. Introduction Vorticity wakes are often generated by energetic ocean currents flowing past islands. These wakes are of interest to the oceanographic community because they can extract momentum from the incident flow and modify water masses on short time and spatial scales. For sufficiently strong currents, eddies form and separate from the island ( Heywood et al. 1990 ). Energetic, unstable wake eddies may dissipate locally and increase mixing close to the island ( Chang et al. 2013 ). More

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

, 10 183 – 10 192 , https://doi.org/10.1029/93JC03588 . 10.1029/93JC03588 Dietrich , D. E. , M. J. Bowman , and C. A. Lin , 1996 : Numerical studies of small island wakes in the ocean . Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid , 83 , 195 – 231 , https://doi.org/10.1080/03091929608208966 . 10.1080/03091929608208966 Dong , C. , and J. C. McWilliams , 2007 : A numerical study of island wakes in the southern California bight . Cont. Shelf Res. , 27 , 1233 – 1248 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j

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Shuwen Tan, Larry J. Pratt, Dongliang Yuan, Xiang Li, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep S. Budiman, and Ahmad Bayhaqi

, 83 – 89 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1980)010<0083:EOTLRO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1980)010<0083:EOTLRO>2.0.CO;2 Ozmidov , R. V. , 1965 : On the turbulent exchange in a stably stratified ocean . Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. , 1 , 861 – 871 . Pandey , V. K. , V. Bhatt , A. C. Pandey , and I. M. L. Das , 2007 : Impact of Indonesian throughflow blockage on the Southern Indian Ocean . Curr. Sci. , 93 , 399 – 406 . Pawlak , G. , and L. Armi , 1997

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Eric Kunze and Ren-Chieh Lien

. 2016 ; Yang et al. 2018 , 2019 ). Wright et al. obtained the highest of these estimates by correcting for low abyssal currents in HYCOM, but it had ±0.2-TW uncertainties associated with the buoyancy frequency climatology, as well as unquantified uncertainties associated with their bottom velocity product and theoretical assumptions. Lee waves are expected to be a major energy sink for Antarctic Circumpolar Currents in the Southern Ocean (ACC; Gille 1997 ), which accounts for 50% of the global

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Jody M. Klymak

.0.CO;2 Baines , P. G. , 1995 : Topographic Effects in Stratified Flows . Cambridge University Press, 498 pp. Bell , T. H. , 1975 : Topographically generated internal waves in the open ocean . J. Geophys. Res. , 80 , 320 – 327 , https://doi.org/10.1029/JC080i003p00320 . 10.1029/JC080i003p00320 Brearley , J. A. , K. L. Sheen , A. C. Naveira Garabato , D. A. Smeed , and S. Waterman , 2013 : Eddy-induced modulation of turbulent dissipation over rough topography in the Southern

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