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Chun-Chieh Wu, Jan-Huey Chen, Sharanya J. Majumdar, Melinda S. Peng, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Sim D. Aberson, Roberto Buizza, Munehiko Yamaguchi, Shin-Gan Chen, Tetsuo Nakazawa, and Kun-Hsuan Chou

1. Introduction The tropical cyclone (TC) is one of the most threatening natural phenomena that cause great human and economic losses. The lack of observations over the ocean regions where TCs spend most of their lifetime seriously degrades the accuracy of forecasts ( Wu 2006 ). Therefore, it is worthwhile to assimilate the special data obtained from both aircraft (with dropwindsondes deployed) and satellites in areas that may have the maximum influence on numerical model predictions of TCs. To

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Mu Mu, Feifan Zhou, and Hongli Wang

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hurricane Research Division (HRD) between 1982 and 1996, and the World Meteorology Organization (WMO) Special Experiment Concerning Typhoon Recurvature and Unusual Motion in 1990 (SPECTRUM-90). Studies showed that extensive observations obtained in the general region around the cyclones did not conclusively improve forecasts more than observations only obtained in particular regions ( Franklin and DeMaria 1992 ; Aberson 2002 ). Naturally the

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Chun-Chieh Wu, Shin-Gan Chen, Jan-Huey Chen, Kun-Hsuan Chou, and Po-Hsiung Lin

of Shanshan gradually turned to the west. Shanshan was located between the midlatitude trough over northern-central China and the subtropical high, which is divided into two areas by the midtropospheric nearly cutoff low near 25°N, 145°E ( Fig. 2a ). On around 15 September, the translation speed of Shanshan became slower and it changed its direction to the north, passing through the ocean to the east of Taiwan. The subtropical high remained to the east of Shanshan while the trough slightly

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Fuqing Zhang, Yonghui Weng, Jason A. Sippel, Zhiyong Meng, and Craig H. Bishop

, 2884 – 2903 . Barker , D. M. , 2005 : Southern high-latitude ensemble data assimilation in the Antarctic mesoscale prediction system. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133 , 3431 – 3449 . Barker , D. M. , W. Huang , Y-R. Guo , A. J. Bourgeois , and Q. N. Xiao , 2004 : A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for MM5: Implementation and initial results. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 132 , 897 – 914 . Barnes , S. L. , 1964 : A technique for maximizing details in numerical weather map

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Mark Buehner, P. L. Houtekamer, Cecilien Charette, Herschel L. Mitchell, and Bin He

forecast model and the operational observations, except without satellite radiances, the operational 3D-Var system at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction was compared against an EnKF. Medium-range forecasts initialized from the EnKF ensemble-mean analysis and the 3D-Var analysis (both at the same spatial resolution) showed that using the EnKF analyses led to large improvements in the Southern Hemisphere and more modest improvements in the Northern Hemisphere. In a similar experimental

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Hyun Mee Kim and Byoung-Joo Jung

correlations for the second and third SVs shown in Table 3 , which implies that the linearity is degraded for the second and third SVs. 6. Summary and discussion In this study, the horizontal structures, vertical distributions, and growth rates of SVs for Typhoon Usagi were investigated using different moist physics and norms. The MM5, its tangent linear, and adjoint models with a Lanczos algorithm were used to calculate SVs, which maximize the tropospheric TE over a region including land and ocean near

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