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Jianhua Sun and Sixiong Zhao

South China during this stage (the track of cold air marked in Fig. 8 ). At the same time, the transport of moisture from the western Pacific Ocean, the South China Sea, and the Bay of Bengal was also enhanced. Consequently, a shear line in the wind field and a quasi-stationary front in the temperature field were formed and maintained over southern China. The third stage showed quite different features from the second. A rainband first appeared in southern China and then moved northward to the

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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

northern and southern flanks of the eastern cold tongue, with periods of 20–40 days, wavelengths of 1000–2000 km, and a phase speed of 0.5 m s −1 . Over the past decade, microwave remote sensing has allowed great progress in observing and describing these mesoscale signals over the tropical oceans. For example, SSTs can be now measured with unprecedented accuracy by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI; e.g., Wentz et al. 2000 ; Chelton et al. 2000 ). More recently

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Huijun Wang and Ke Fan

1. Introduction Seasonal time-scale dynamical climate predictions based on climate models are of great value to society for agriculture, water resource management, flood and drought disaster reduction, and many other uses. These models, both experimental and operational, were first developed in the early 1990s ( Zeng et al. 1990 ; Ji et al. 1996 ; Kumar et al. 1996 ), based on the successful predictions of El Niño by prototype coupled ocean–atmosphere models ( Zebiak and Cane 1987 ). “Two

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Hamish A. Ramsay, Lance M. Leslie, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

) presented a more systematic study and confirmed that nearby land can induce a marked asymmetry in the low-level flow. The aim of this study is to document the inner-core asymmetries of a severe Southern Hemisphere TC (TC Larry in March 2006) in relation to the two primary mechanisms discussed above, using data previously obtained from a high-resolution numerical simulation ( Ramsay and Leslie 2008 ). TC Larry formed in the southwest Pacific Ocean over the Coral Sea region east of Australia at 0600 UTC

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M. Issa Lélé and Peter J. Lamb

/NWS practices caused the shorter durations of the datasets for Nigeria (lack of digitization) and Chad (lack of observations due to political unrest). For Nigeria, daily totals also were obtained for additional stations used in Tarhule and Woo (1998) . The necessary daily data were not available for the westernmost Soudano–Sahel nation (Senegal), for which the ITF is less well defined because of the maritime influence of the northeast trades over the adjacent Atlantic Ocean. All data were quality

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Howard B. Bluestein

a pathlength of 35.4 km. Other tornadoes, some also significant, tracked across portions of southern Kansas, but fortunately did not strike any heavily populated areas and did not inflict damage as extensive as that inflicted at Greensburg. Although severe weather had been anticipated in southwest Kansas on 4 May 2007 [a convective outlook with a moderate risk of severe weather was issued by the Storm Prediction Center at 0600 UTC, over 24 h before the event (information online at http

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